Given a binary tree, the task is to find the distance between two keys in a binary tree, no parent pointers are given. The distance between two nodes is the minimum number of edges to be traversed to reach one node from other.
We have already discussed a method which uses segment tree to reduce the query time to O(logn), here the task is to reduce query time to O(1) by compromising with space complexity to O(nlogn). In this post, we will use Sparse table instead of segment tree for finding the minimum in given range, which uses dynamic programming and bit manipulation to achieve O(1) query time.
A sparse table will preprocess the minimum values of given range for L array in Nlogn space i.e. each node will contain chain of values of log(i) length where i is the index of the ith node in L array. Each entry in the sparse table says M[i][j] will represent the index of the minimum value in the subarray starting at i having length 2^j.
The distance between two nodes can be obtained in terms of lowest common ancestor.
Dist(n1, n2) = Level[n1] + Level[n2] - 2*Level[lca]
This problem can be breakdown into:
- Finding levels of each node
- Finding the Euler tour of binary tree
- Building sparse table for LCA.
These steps are explained below :
- Find the levels of each node by applying level order traversal.
- Find the LCA of two nodes in binary tree in O(logn) by Storing Euler tour of Binary tree in array and computing two other arrays with the help of levels of each node and Euler tour.
These steps are shown below:
(I) First, find Euler Tour of binary tree.
(II) Then, store levels of each node in Euler array.
(III) Then, store First occurrences of all nodes of binary tree in Euler array. H stores the indices of nodes from Euler array, so that range of query for finding minimum can be minimized and their by further optimizing the query time.
- Then build sparse table on L array and find the minimum value say X in range (H[A] to H[B]). Then, we use the index of value X as an index to Euler array to get LCA, i.e. Euler[index(X)].
Let, A=8 and B=5.
(I) H= 1 and H=2
(II) we get min value in L array between 1 and 2 as X=0, index=7
(III) Then, LCA= Euler, i.e LCA=1.
- Finally, apply distance formula discussed above to get the distance between two nodes.
Dist(4, 5) = 2 Dist(4, 6) = 4 Dist(3, 4) = 3 Dist(2, 4) = 1 Dist(8, 5) = 5
Time Complexity: O(1)
Space Complexity: O(N log N)
- Queries to find distance between two nodes of a Binary tree - O(logn) method
- Find distance between two nodes of a Binary Tree
- Queries to find the maximum Xor value between X and the nodes of a given level of a perfect binary tree
- Shortest distance between two nodes in an infinite binary tree
- Distance between two nodes of binary tree with node values from 1 to N
- Find the path from root to the given nodes of a tree for multiple queries
- Find distance from root to given node in a binary tree
- Find sum of all nodes of the given perfect binary tree
- Find maximum among all right nodes in Binary Tree
- Find height of a special binary tree whose leaf nodes are connected
- Minimum distance to visit all the nodes of an undirected weighted tree
- Find the shortest distance between any pair of two different good nodes
- Binary Indexed Tree : Range Updates and Point Queries
- Sum of all nodes in a binary tree
- Tree with N nodes and K leaves such that distance between farthest leaves is minimized
If you like GeeksforGeeks and would like to contribute, you can also write an article using contribute.geeksforgeeks.org or mail your article to email@example.com. See your article appearing on the GeeksforGeeks main page and help other Geeks.
Please Improve this article if you find anything incorrect by clicking on the "Improve Article" button below.
Improved By : Abhishek rajput