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Python3 Program to Find array sum using Bitwise OR after splitting given array in two halves after K circular shifts

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  • Last Updated : 31 Mar, 2022

Given an array A[] of length N, where N is an even number, the task is to answer Q independent queries where each query consists of a positive integer K representing the number of circular shifts performed on the array and find the sum of elements by performing Bitwise OR operation on the divided array.
Note: Each query begins with the original array.
Examples: 
 

Input: A[] = {12, 23, 4, 21, 22, 76}, Q = 1, K = 2 
Output: 117 
Explanation: 
Since K is 2, modified array A[]={22, 76, 12, 23, 4, 21}. 
Bitwise OR of first half of array = (22 | 76 | 12) = 94 
Bitwise OR of second half of array = (21 | 23 | 4) = 23 
Sum of OR values is 94 + 23 = 117
Input: A[] = {7, 44, 19, 86, 65, 39, 75, 101}, Q = 1, K = 4 
Output: 238 
Since K is 4, modified array A[]={65, 39, 75, 101, 7, 44, 19, 86}. 
Bitwise OR of first half of array = 111 
Bitwise OR of second half of array = 127 
Sum of OR values is 111 + 127 = 238 
 

 

Naive Approach: 
To solve the problem mentioned above the simplest approach is to shift each element of the array by K % (N / 2) and then traverse the array to calculate the OR of the two halves for every query. But this method is not efficient and hence can be optimized further.
Efficient Approach: 
To optimize the above mentioned approach we can take the help of Segment Tree data structure. 
 

Observation: 
 

  • We can observe that after exactly N / 2 right circular shifts the two halves of the array become the same as in the original array. This effectively reduces the number of rotations to K % (N / 2).
  • Performing a right circular shift is basically shifting the last element of the array to the front. So for any positive integer X performing X right circular shifts is equal to shifting the last X elements of the array to the front.

Following are the steps to solve the problem : 
 

  • Construct a segment tree for the original array A[] and assign a variable let’s say i = K % (N / 2).
  • Then for each query we use the segment tree of find the bitwise OR; that is Bitwise OR of i elements from the end OR bitwise OR of the first (N / 2) – i – 1 elements.
  • Then calculate the bitwise OR of elements in range [(N / 2) – i, N – i – 1].
  • Add the two results to get the answer for the ith query.

Below is the implementation of the above approach:
 

Python3




# Python3 program to find Bitwise OR of two
# equal halves of an array after performing
# K right circular shifts
MAX = 100005
 
# Array for storing
# the segment tree
seg = [0] * (4 * MAX)
 
# Function to build the segment tree
def build(node, l, r, a):
 
    if (l == r):
        seg[node] = a[l]
 
    else:
        mid = (l + r) // 2
 
        build(2 * node, l, mid, a)
        build(2 * node + 1, mid + 1, r, a)
         
        seg[node] = (seg[2 * node] |
                     seg[2 * node + 1])
 
# Function to return the OR
# of elements in the range [l, r]
def query(node, l, r, start, end, a):
     
    # Check for out of bound condition
    if (l > end or r < start):
        return 0
 
    if (start <= l and r <= end):
        return seg[node]
 
    # Find middle of the range
    mid = (l + r) // 2
 
    # Recurse for all the elements in array
    return ((query(2 * node, l, mid,
                       start, end, a)) |
            (query(2 * node + 1, mid + 1,
                       r, start, end, a)))
 
# Function to find the OR sum
def orsum(a, n, q, k):
 
    # Function to build the segment Tree
    build(1, 0, n - 1, a)
 
    # Loop to handle q queries
    for j in range(q):
         
        # Effective number of
        # right circular shifts
        i = k[j] % (n // 2)
 
        # Calculating the OR of
        # the two halves of the
        # array from the segment tree
 
        # OR of second half of the
        # array [n/2-i, n-1-i]
        sec = query(1, 0, n - 1, n // 2 - i,
                          n - i - 1, a)
 
        # OR of first half of the array
        # [n-i, n-1]OR[0, n/2-1-i]
        first = (query(1, 0, n - 1, 0,
                             n // 2 -
                             1 - i, a) |
                 query(1, 0, n - 1,
                             n - i,
                             n - 1, a))
 
        temp = sec + first
 
        # Print final answer to the query
        print(temp)
 
# Driver Code
if __name__ == "__main__":
 
    a = [ 7, 44, 19, 86, 65, 39, 75, 101 ]
    n = len(a)
     
    q = 2
    k = [ 4, 2 ]
     
    orsum(a, n, q, k)
 
# This code is contributed by chitranayal

Output: 

238
230

 

Time Complexity: O(N + Q*logN)

Auxiliary Space: O(4*MAX)

Please refer complete article on Find array sum using Bitwise OR after splitting given array in two halves after K circular shifts for more details!


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