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Python String Concatenation

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In Python, Strings are arrays of bytes representing Unicode characters. However, Python does not have a character data type, a single character is simply a string with a length of “1”. Square brackets [ ] can be used to access elements of the string. In this article, we will learn how to concat strings in Python using different methods.


Input:  string1, string2
Output: "string1 string2"
Explanation: In this example, we have passed two strings as input, and we get the single string as output by joining them together.

Concatenate Strings in Python

String Concatenation is the technique of combining two strings. String Concatenation can be done using different ways as follows: 

  1. Using + operator 
  2. Using join() method 
  3. Using % operator 
  4. Using format() function 
  5. Using “,” (comma)

Python String Concatenation using the ‘+’ Operator in Python

It’s very easy to use the + operator for string concatenation. This operator can be used to add multiple strings together. However, the arguments must be a string. Here, The + Operator combines the string that is stored in the var1 and var2 and stores in another variable var3.

Note: Strings are immutable, therefore, we don’t modify the string instead we concatenate them together and assigned them to a new variable.


# Defining strings
var1 = "Hello "
var2 = "Geek"
# + Operator is used to combine strings
var3 = var1 + var2


Hello Geek

String Concatenation using the join() Method in Python

The join() method is a string method and returns a string in which the elements of the sequence have been joined by a string separator. This method combines the string that is stored in var1 and var2. It accepts only the list as its argument and list size can be anything. 


var1 = "Geeks"
var2 = "forGeeks"
# join() method is used to combine the strings
print("".join([var1, var2]))
# join() method is used here to combine
# the string with a separator Space(" ")
var3 = " ".join([var1, var2])


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The time complexity of both methods is O(n), where n is the total length of the strings.

The auxiliary space complexity for the second join() method is also O(n), as it creates a new string that contains the combined string along with the separator.

Concatenate Strings in Python using ‘%’ Operator

We can use the % operator for string formatting, it can also be used for string concatenation. It’s useful when we want to concatenate strings and perform simple formatting. The %s denotes string data type. The value in both the variable is passed to the string %s and becomes “Hello World”.


var1 = "Welcome"
var2 = "Geek"
# % Operator is used here to combine the string
print("% s % s" % (var1, var2))


Welcome Geek

Python String Concatenation using format() function in Python

The str.format() is one of the string formatting methods in Python, which allows multiple substitutions and value formatting. It concatenates elements within a string through positional formatting. The curly braces {} are used to set the position of strings. The first variable stores in the first curly braces and the second variable stores in the second curly braces. Finally, it prints the value “Hello World”.


var1 = "Hello"
var2 = "Geeks"
# format function is used here to
# combine the string
print("{} {}".format(var1, var2))
# store the result in another variable
var3 = "{} {}".format(var1, var2)


Hello Geeks
Hello Geeks

Concatenate Strings in Python using “, ” comma

A comma “,” is a great alternative to string concatenation using “+”. when you want to include single whitespace. Use a comma when you want to combine data types with single whitespace in between.


var1 = "Geeks"
var2 = "for"
var3 = "Geeks"
# using comma to combine data types
# with a single whitespace.
print(var1, var2, var3)


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Last Updated : 27 Jul, 2023
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