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Python Program for N Queen Problem | Backtracking-3

  • Difficulty Level : Expert
  • Last Updated : 03 Aug, 2021

The N Queen is the problem of placing N chess queens on an N×N chessboard so that no two queens attack each other. For example, the following is a solution for 4 Queen problem.

The expected output is a binary matrix that has 1s for the blocks where queens are placed. For example, the following is the output matrix for above 4 queen solution.

              { 0,  1,  0,  0}
              { 0,  0,  0,  1}
              { 1,  0,  0,  0}
              { 0,  0,  1,  0}

Python




# Python program to solve N Queen
# Problem using backtracking
 
global N
N = 4
 
def printSolution(board):
    for i in range(N):
        for j in range(N):
            print board[i][j],
        print
 
 
# A utility function to check if a queen can
# be placed on board[row][col]. Note that this
# function is called when "col" queens are
# already placed in columns from 0 to col -1.
# So we need to check only left side for
# attacking queens
def isSafe(board, row, col):
 
    # Check this row on left side
    for i in range(col):
        if board[row][i] == 1:
            return False
 
    # Check upper diagonal on left side
    for i, j in zip(range(row, -1, -1), range(col, -1, -1)):
        if board[i][j] == 1:
            return False
 
    # Check lower diagonal on left side
    for i, j in zip(range(row, N, 1), range(col, -1, -1)):
        if board[i][j] == 1:
            return False
 
    return True
 
def solveNQUtil(board, col):
    # base case: If all queens are placed
    # then return true
    if col >= N:
        return True
 
    # Consider this column and try placing
    # this queen in all rows one by one
    for i in range(N):
 
        if isSafe(board, i, col):
            # Place this queen in board[i][col]
            board[i][col] = 1
 
            # recur to place rest of the queens
            if solveNQUtil(board, col + 1) == True:
                return True
 
            # If placing queen in board[i][col
            # doesn't lead to a solution, then
            # queen from board[i][col]
            board[i][col] = 0
 
    # if the queen can not be placed in any row in
    # this column col  then return false
    return False
 
# This function solves the N Queen problem using
# Backtracking. It mainly uses solveNQUtil() to
# solve the problem. It returns false if queens
# cannot be placed, otherwise return true and
# placement of queens in the form of 1s.
# note that there may be more than one
# solutions, this function prints one  of the
# feasible solutions.
def solveNQ():
    board = [ [0, 0, 0, 0],
              [0, 0, 0, 0],
              [0, 0, 0, 0],
              [0, 0, 0, 0]
             ]
 
    if solveNQUtil(board, 0) == False:
        print "Solution does not exist"
        return False
 
    printSolution(board)
    return True
 
# driver program to test above function
solveNQ()
 
# This code is contributed by Divyanshu Mehta
Output:
0 0 1 0
1 0 0 0
0 0 0 1
0 1 0 0

 

Please refer complete article on N Queen Problem | Backtracking-3 for more details!
 




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