Python | os.fchdir() method

OS module in Python provides functions for interacting with the operating system. OS comes under Python’s standard utility modules. This module provides a portable way of using operating system dependent functionality.

os.fchdir() method in Python is used to change the current working directory to the directory represented by the given file descriptor.

A file descriptor is small integer value that corresponds to a file or other input/output resource, such as a pipe or network socket. A File descriptor is an abstract indicator of a resource and act as handle to perform various lower level I/O operations like read, write, send etc.



For Example: Standard input is usually file descriptor with value 0, standard output is usually file descriptor with value 1 and standard error is usually file descriptor with value 2.
Further files opened by the current process will get the value 3, 4, 5 an so on.

os.fchdir() method is equivalent to os.chdir(file_descriptor) method.

Syntax: os.fchdir(fd)

Parameter:
fd: A file descriptor. The file descriptor must represent an opened directory not an open file.

Return Type: This method does not return any value.

Code #1: Use of os.fchdir() method to change the current working directory

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# Python program to explain os.fchdir() method 
    
# importing os module 
import os
  
  
# Print the current working
# directory using os.getcwd() method
print("Current working directory:", os.getcwd()) 
   
  
# Path
path = "/home/ihritik/Documents"
  
  
# open the directory represented by
# the above given path and get
# the file descriptor associated
# with it using os.open() method
fd = os.open(path, os.O_RDONLY)
  
  
# Change the current working
# directory using os.fchdir() method 
os.fchdir(fd)
print("Current working directory changed"
  
  
# Print the current working
# directory using os.getcwd() method
print("Current working directory:", os.getcwd()) 

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Output:

Current working directory: /home/ihritik
Current working directory changed
Current working directory: /home/ihritik/Documents
Code #2: Possible errors while using of os.fchdir() method

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# Python program to explain os.fchdir() method 
    
# importing os module 
import os
  
  
# Path
path = "/home/ihritik/Documents/file.txt"
  
# open the above path and get
# the file descriptor associated
# with it using os.open() method
fd = os.open(path, os.O_RDONLY)
  
  
# The file descriptor must 
# represent an open file 
# instead of an opened directory
# The method will raise 
# 'NotADirectoryError' exception 
  
# Change the current working
# directory using os.fchdir() method 
os.fchdir(fd)
print("Current working directory changed"
  
  
# Print the current working
# directory using os.getcwd() method
print("Current working directory:", os.getcwd()) 

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Output:

Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "changeDir.py", line 24, in 
    os.fchdir(fd)
NotADirectoryError: [Errno 20] Not a directory
Code #3: Handling possible errors while using of os.fchdir() method

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# Python program to explain os.fchdir() method 
    
# importing os module 
import os
  
  
# Path
path = "/home/ihritik/Desktop/file.txt"
  
# try opening the above path and get
# the file descriptor associated
# with it using os.open() method
try :
    fd = os.open(path, os.O_RDONLY)
      
    # Try Changing the current working
    # directory using os.fchdir() method 
    try :
        os.fchdir(fd)
        print("Current working directory changed"
          
        # Print the current working
        # directory using os.getcwd() method
        print("Current working directory:", os.getcwd()) 
  
  
    # Catch exceptions
    # If file descriptor does
    # not represents a directory
    except NotADirectoryError:
        print("The given file descriptor does \
not represent a directory")
      
  
# Catch exceptions
# If path does not exists
except FileNotFoundError:
    print("Path does not exists")
  
# If there is any permission
# related issue while opening
# the given path 
except PermissionError:
    print("Permission denied")

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Output:

The given file descriptor does not represent a directory


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