Python Numbers, Type Conversion and Mathematics

• Last Updated : 17 Dec, 2020

Prerequisite: Python Language Introduction

Python is a general-purpose interpreted, interactive, object-oriented, and high-level programming language. It was created by Guido van Rossum. It is an open-source programming language.

Types of numbers in Python

There are three numeric types in Python:

• int
• float
• complex

As Python is a Loosely typed language, we need not define the variable. Variables of numeric types are created when you assign a value to them.

Example :

Python3

 # intvar1 = 3  # floatvar2 = 3.14  # complexvar3 = 3j  # type() method return the # data type of the variableprint(type(var1))print(type(var2))print(type(var3))

Output:

<class 'int'>
<class 'float'>
<class 'complex'>

Type conversion

Converting the value of one data type (integer, string, float, etc.) to another data type is called type conversion.

Example:

Python3

 # Python code to demonstrate Type conversion var1 = 3.14  # type conversion of float to int .var2 = int(var1)   print ("After converting float to integer : ", var2) print ("type : ",type(var2))  # type conversion of string to integervar3 = "323"var4 = int(var3)   print ("After converting string to integer : ", var4) print ("type : ",type(var4))

Output:

After converting float to integer :  3
type :  <class 'int'>
After converting string to integer :  323
type :  <class 'int'>

Arithmetic operations on anumber

You can add, subtract, multiply, and divide numbers using various methods.

Example:

Python3

 a = 50b = 30  # Addition of numbers add = a + b   # Subtraction of numbers sub = a - b   # Multiplication of number mul = a * b   # Division of number div1 = a / b   # Division of number div2 = a // b   # Modulo of both number mod = a % b   # Power p = a ** b   # print results print(add) print(sub) print(mul) print(div1) print(div2) print(mod) print(p)

Output:

80
20
1500
1.6666666666666667
1
20
931322574615478515625000000000000000000000000000000

Math Functions:

The math module has a set of mathematical functions, Some of them are discussed below.

Example 1:

Python3

 # Python code to demonstrate the working of # ceil() and floor()   # importing "math" for mathematical operations import math   a = 2.3  # returning the ceil of 2.3 print ("The ceil of 2.3 is : ", end="") print (math.ceil(a))   # returning the floor of 2.3 print ("The floor of 2.3 is : ", end="") print (math.floor(a))

Output:

The ceil of 2.3 is : 3
The floor of 2.3 is : 2

Example 2:

Python3

 # importing "math" for mathematical operations import math     a = -10b = 5.5c = 15d = 5    # returning the copysigned value. print ("The copysigned value of -10 and 5.5 is : ", end="") print (math.copysign(5.5, -10))     # returning the gcd of 15 and 5 print ("The gcd of 5 and 15 is : ", end="") print (math.gcd(5,15))

Output:

The copysigned value of -10 and 5.5 is : -5.5
The gcd of 5 and 15 is : 5

Random numbers:

In Python, we have a set of functions that are used to generate random numbers. These functions are used in games and lottery applications.

Methods in the random library:

• Choice()
• randrange()
• random
• seed()

Example:

Python3

 # importing "random" for random operations import random     # using random() to generate a random number # between 0 and 1 print ("A random number between 0 and 1 is : ", end="") print (random.random())

Output:

A random number between 0 and 1 is : 0.8548698466875713

There is a detailed article on random numbers in geeksforgeeks.  You can refer to the article here.

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