Python Modules

A module is a file containing Python definitions and statements. A module can define functions, classes, and variables. A module can also include runnable code. Grouping related code into a module makes the code easier to understand and use. It also makes the code logically organized.

Example:

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# A simple module, calc.py
 
def add(x, y):
    return (x+y)
 
def subtract(x, y):
    return (x-y)

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The import statement

We can use any Python source file as a module by executing an import statement in some other Python source file. 
When the interpreter encounters an import statement, it imports the module if the module is present in the search path. A search path is a list of directories that the interpreter searches for importing a module. For example, to import the module calc.py, we need to put the following command at the top of the script : 

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# importing  module calc.py
import calc
 
print(add(10, 2))

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Output:



12

The from import Statement 

Python’s from statement lets you import specific attributes from a module. The from .. import .. has the following syntax :

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# importing sqrt() and factorial from the
# module math
from math import sqrt, factorial
 
# if we simply do "import math", then
# math.sqrt(16) and math.factorial()
# are required.
print(sqrt(16))
print(factorial(6))

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Output: 

4.0
720

The from import *  Statement

The * symbol used with the from import the statement is used to import all the names from a module to a current namespace.

Syntax:

from module_name import *

The use of * has it’s advantages and disadvantages. If you know exactly what you will be needing from the module, it is not recommended to use *, else do so.

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#  Import built-in module  random
from random import *
 
print(dir(random))

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Output:

[‘__call__’, ‘__class__’, ‘__delattr__’, ‘__dir__’, ‘__doc__’, ‘__eq__’, ‘__format__’, ‘__ge__’, ‘__getattribute__’, ‘__gt__’, ‘__hash__’, ‘__init__’, ‘__init_subclass__’, ‘__le__’, ‘__lt__’, ‘__module__’, ‘__name__’, ‘__ne__’, ‘__new__’, ‘__qualname__’, ‘__reduce__’, ‘__reduce_ex__’, ‘__repr__’, ‘__self__’, ‘__setattr__’, ‘__sizeof__’, ‘__str__’, ‘__subclasshook__’, ‘__text_signature__’]

The dir() function

The dir() built-in function returns a sorted list of strings containing the names defined by a module. The list contains the names of all the modules, variables, and functions that are defined in a module.



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#  Import built-in module  random
import  random
print(dir(random))

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Output:

[‘BPF’, ‘LOG4’, ‘NV_MAGICCONST’, ‘RECIP_BPF’, ‘Random’, ‘SG_MAGICCONST’, ‘SystemRandom’, ‘TWOPI’, ‘_BuiltinMethodType’, ‘_MethodType’, ‘_Sequence’, ‘_Set’, ‘__all__’, ‘__builtins__’, ‘__cached__’, ‘__doc__’, ‘__file__’, ‘__loader__’, ‘__name__’, ‘__package__’, ‘__spec__’, ‘_acos’, ‘_bisect’, ‘_ceil’, ‘_cos’, ‘_e’, ‘_exp’, ‘_inst’, ‘_itertools’, ‘_log’, ‘_pi’, ‘_random’, ‘_sha512’, ‘_sin’, ‘_sqrt’, ‘_test’, ‘_test_generator’, ‘_urandom’, ‘_warn’, ‘betavariate’, ‘choice’, ‘choices’, ‘expovariate’, ‘gammavariate’, ‘gauss’, ‘getrandbits’, ‘getstate’, ‘lognormvariate’, ‘normalvariate’, ‘paretovariate’, ‘randint’, ‘random’, ‘randrange’, ‘sample’, ‘seed’, ‘setstate’, ‘shuffle’, ‘triangular’, ‘uniform’, ‘vonmisesvariate’, ‘weibullvariate’]

Code Snippet illustrating python built-in modules: 

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# importing built-in module math
import math
 
# using square root(sqrt) function contained
# in math module
print(math.sqrt(25))
 
# using pi function contained in math module
print(math.pi)
 
# 2 radians = 114.59 degreees
print(math.degrees(2)) 
 
# 60 degrees = 1.04 radians
print(math.radians(60)) 
 
# Sine of 2 radians
print(math.sin(2)) 
 
# Cosine of 0.5 radians
print(math.cos(0.5)) 
 
# Tangent of 0.23 radians
print(math.tan(0.23))
 
# 1 * 2 * 3 * 4 = 24
print(math.factorial(4)) 
 
# importing built in module random
import random
 
# printing random integer between 0 and 5
print(random.randint(0, 5)) 
 
# print random floating point number between 0 and 1
print(random.random()) 
 
# random number between 0 and 100
print(random.random() * 100
 
List = [1, 4, True, 800, "python", 27, "hello"]
 
# using choice function in random module for choosing
# a random element from a set such as a list
print(random.choice(List))
 
 
# importing built in module datetime
import datetime
from datetime import date
import time
 
# Returns the number of seconds since the
# Unix Epoch, January 1st 1970
print(time.time()) 
 
# Converts a number of seconds to a date object
print(date.fromtimestamp(454554)) 

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Output:

5.0
3.14159265359
114.591559026
1.0471975512
0.909297426826
0.87758256189
0.234143362351
24
3
0.401533172951
88.4917616788
True
1461425771.87
1970-01-06
 

This article is contributed by Gaurav Shrestha. Please write comments if you find anything incorrect, or you want to share more information about the topic discussed above. If you like GeeksforGeeks and would like to contribute, you can also write an article and mail your article to contribute@geeksforgeeks.org. See your article appearing on the GeeksforGeeks main page and help other Geeks.

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