# Python | Merge List with common elements in a List of Lists

Given a list of list, we have to merge all sub-list having common elements. These type of problems are very frequent in College examinations and while solving coding competitions.
Below are some ways to achieve this.

```Input:
[[11, 27, 13], [11, 27, 55], [22, 0, 43],
[22, 0, 96], [13, 27, 11], [13, 27, 55],
[43, 0, 22], [43, 0, 96], [55, 27, 11]]

Output:
[[0, 43, 96, 22], [27, 11, 13, 55]]
```

Method# 1: Using Recursion is the most brute method to merge all the sub-list having common elements

 `# Python code to merge all sublist having common elements. ` ` `  `# Using recursion to merge all sublist having common elements. ` `def` `merge(``Input``, _start, _c ``=` `[], _seen ``=` `[], _used``=``[]): ` `    ``elem ``=` `[x ``for` `x ``in` `Input` `if` `any``(y ``in` `_start ``for` `y ``in` `x)  ` `    ``and` `x ``not` `in` `_seen ``and` `x ``not` `in` `_used] ` `    ``if` `not` `elem: ` `        ``yield` `set``(_c) ` `        ``for` `x ``in` `Input``: ` `            ``if` `x !``=` `_start ``and` `x ``not` `in` `_used: ` `                ``yield` `from` `merge(``Input``, x, _c``=``[], _seen``=``[],  ` `                           ``_used``=``_used``+``[x, ``*``elem]) ` `    ``else``: ` `        ``yield` `from` `merge(``Input``, _start, _c ``=` `_c ``+` `[x ``for` `                                            ``y ``in` `elem ``for` `x ``in` `y], ` `                    ``_seen``=``_seen ``+` `elem, _used ``=` `_used ``+` `elem) ` ` `  `#Input list Initialization ` `Input` `=` `[[``11``, ``27``, ``13``], [``11``, ``27``, ``55``], [``22``, ``0``, ``43``], ` `         ``[``22``, ``0``, ``96``], [``13``, ``27``, ``11``], [``13``, ``27``, ``55``], ` `         ``[``43``, ``0``, ``22``], [``43``, ``0``, ``96``], [``55``, ``27``, ``11``]] ` ` `  `#Calling merge function ` `Output ``=` `list``(``map``(``list``, {``tuple``(x) ``for` `                         ``x ``in` `merge(``Input``, ``Input``[``0``], _seen``=``[``Input``[``0``]]) ` `                         ``if` `x})) ` ` `  `#Printing output ` `print``(``"Initial list of list is :"``) ` `print``(``Input``) ` `print``(``"List of list after merging is:"``) ` `print``(Output) `

```Output:
Initial list of list is :
[[11, 27, 13], [11, 27, 55], [22, 0, 43], [22, 0, 96],
[13, 27, 11], [13, 27, 55], [43, 0, 22], [43, 0, 96],
[55, 27, 11]]
List of list after merging is:
[[0, 43, 96, 22], [27, 11, 13, 55]]
```

Method #2: Using connected component, we can model element as and model it in connected component problem.

 `#Python code to merge all sublist having common elements. ` ` `  `#Importing  ` `from` `collections ``import` `defaultdict ` ` `  `#merge function to  merge all sublist having common elements. ` `def` `merge_common(lists): ` `    ``neigh ``=` `defaultdict(``set``) ` `    ``visited ``=` `set``() ` `    ``for` `each ``in` `lists: ` `        ``for` `item ``in` `each: ` `            ``neigh[item].update(each) ` `    ``def` `comp(node, neigh ``=` `neigh, visited ``=` `visited, vis ``=` `visited.add): ` `        ``nodes ``=` `set``([node]) ` `        ``next_node ``=` `nodes.pop ` `        ``while` `nodes: ` `            ``node ``=` `next_node() ` `            ``vis(node) ` `            ``nodes |``=` `neigh[node] ``-` `visited ` `            ``yield` `node ` `    ``for` `node ``in` `neigh: ` `        ``if` `node ``not` `in` `visited: ` `            ``yield` `sorted``(comp(node)) ` ` `  `#Input list initialization ` `Input` `=` `[[``'z'``,``'x'``,``'y'``], [``'y'``,``'g'``,``'e'``], [``'z'``],[``'x'``,``'p'``], ` `         ``[``'a'``,``'b'``], [``'y'``,``'a'``], [``'d'``,``'g'``]] ` ` `  `#Calling merge function ` `Output ``=` `list``(merge_common(``Input``)) ` ` `  `#Printing function ` `print``(``"Initial list of list is :"``) ` `print``(``Input``) ` ` `  `print``(``"List of list after merging is:"``) ` `print``(Output) `

```Output:
Initial list of list is :
[['z', 'x', 'y'], ['y', 'g', 'e'], ['z'], ['x', 'p'], ['a', 'b'], ['y', 'a'], ['d', 'g']]
List of list after merging is:
[['a', 'b', 'd', 'e', 'g', 'p', 'x', 'y', 'z']]
```

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