Python Exception Handling
In this article, we will discuss how to handle exceptions in Python using try. catch, and finally statement with the help of proper examples.
Error in Python can be of two types i.e. Syntax errors and Exceptions. Errors are the problems in a program due to which the program will stop the execution. On the other hand, exceptions are raised when some internal events occur which changes the normal flow of the program.
Difference between Syntax Error and Exceptions
Syntax Error: As the name suggests this error is caused by the wrong syntax in the code. It leads to the termination of the program.
Exceptions: Exceptions are raised when the program is syntactically correct, but the code resulted in an error. This error does not stop the execution of the program, however, it changes the normal flow of the program.
In the above example raised the ZeroDivisionError as we are trying to divide a number by 0.
Note: Exception is the base class for all the exceptions in Python. You can check the exception hierarchy here.
Try and Except Statement – Catching Exceptions
Try and except statements are used to catch and handle exceptions in Python. Statements that can raise exceptions are kept inside the try clause and the statements that handle the exception are written inside except clause.
Example: Let us try to access the array element whose index is out of bound and handle the corresponding exception.
Second element = 2 An error occurred
In the above example, the statements that can cause the error are placed inside the try statement (second print statement in our case). The second print statement tries to access the fourth element of the list which is not there and this throws an exception. This exception is then caught by the except statement.
Catching Specific Exception
A try statement can have more than one except clause, to specify handlers for different exceptions. Please note that at most one handler will be executed. For example, we can add IndexError in the above code. The general syntax for adding specific exceptions are –
try: # statement(s) except IndexError: # statement(s) except ValueError: # statement(s)
Example: Catching specific exception in Python
ZeroDivisionError Occurred and Handled
If you comment on the line fun(3), the output will be
NameError Occurred and Handled
The output above is so because as soon as python tries to access the value of b, NameError occurs.
Try with Else Clause
In python, you can also use the else clause on the try-except block which must be present after all the except clauses. The code enters the else block only if the try clause does not raise an exception.
Example: Try with else clause
-5.0 a/b result in 0
Finally Keyword in Python
Python provides a keyword finally, which is always executed after the try and except blocks. The final block always executes after normal termination of try block or after try block terminates due to some exception.
try: # Some Code.... except: # optional block # Handling of exception (if required) else: # execute if no exception finally: # Some code .....(always executed)
Can't divide by zero This is always executed
The raise statement allows the programmer to force a specific exception to occur. The sole argument in raise indicates the exception to be raised. This must be either an exception instance or an exception class (a class that derives from Exception).
The output of the above code will simply line printed as “An exception” but a Runtime error will also occur in the last due to the raise statement in the last line. So, the output on your command line will look like
Traceback (most recent call last): File "/home/d6ec14ca595b97bff8d8034bbf212a9f.py", line 5, in <module> raise NameError("Hi there") # Raise Error NameError: Hi there
This article is contributed by Nikhil Kumar Singh(nickzuck_007)
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