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Program to remove vowels from Linked List
  • Difficulty Level : Medium
  • Last Updated : 26 Jan, 2021

Given a singly linked list, the task is to remove the vowels from the given linked list.

Examples: 

Input: g -> e -> e -> k -> s -> f -> o -> r -> g -> e -> e -> k -> s 
Output: g -> k -> s -> f -> r -> g -> k -> s 
Explanation: 
After removing vowels {e, e}, {o}, {e, e}. The linked list becomes 
g -> k -> s -> f -> r -> g -> k -> s

Input: a -> a -> a -> g -> e -> e -> k -> s -> i -> i -> i -> m 
Output: g -> k -> s -> m 
Explanation: 
After removing vowels {a, a, a}, {e, e}, {i, i, i}. The linked list becomes 
g -> k -> s -> f -> r -> g -> k -> s 

Approach: 
There are three cases where we can find the vowels in the given linked list:  



  • At starting of the linked list: For removing vowels from the starting of the linked list, move the head Node to the first consonant occurs in the linked list
    For Example: 
For Linked List:
a -> e -> i -> a -> c -> r -> d -> NULL
After moving the head Node from Node a to Node c,  We have 
c -> r -> d -> NULL
  • In between of the linked list: For removing vowels from the between of the linked list, the idea is to keep a marker of the last consonant found in the linked list before the vowel Nodes and change the next link of that Node with the next consonant Node found in the linked list after vowel Nodes
    For Example: 
For Linked List:
c -> r -> d -> a -> e -> i -> a -> c -> r -> z -> NULL
last consonant before vowels {a, e, i, a} is d
and next consonant after vowels {a, e, i, a} is r
After linking next pointer of Node d to Node r, We have 
c -> r -> d -> r -> z -> NULL
  • At the end of the linked list: For removing vowels from the end of the linked list, the idea is to keep a marker of the last consonant found in the linked list before the vowel Nodes and change the next link of that Node with NULL. 
    For Example: 
For Linked List:
c -> r -> d -> a -> e -> i -> a -> NULL
last consonant before vowels {a, e, i, a} is d
After changing the next link of Node  to NULL, We have 
c -> r -> d -> NULL

Below is the implementation of the above approach:

C++

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// C++ program to remove vowels
// Nodes in a linked list
#include <bits/stdc++.h>
using namespace std;
 
// A linked list node
struct Node {
    char data;
    struct Node* next;
};
 
// Head Node
struct Node* head;
 
// Function to add new node to the
// List
Node* newNode(char key)
{
    Node* temp = new Node;
    temp->data = key;
    temp->next = NULL;
    return temp;
}
 
// Utility function to print the
// linked list
void printlist(Node* head)
{
    if (!head) {
        cout << "Empty List\n";
        return;
    }
    while (head != NULL) {
        cout << head->data << " ";
        if (head->next)
            cout << "-> ";
        head = head->next;
    }
    cout << endl;
}
 
// Utility function for checking vowel
bool isVowel(char x)
{
    return (x == 'a' || x == 'e' || x == 'i'
            || x == 'o' || x == 'u' || x == 'A'
            || x == 'E' || x == 'I' || x == 'O'
            || x == 'U');
}
 
// Function to remove the vowels Node
void removeVowels()
{
    // Node pointing to head Node
    struct Node* ptr = head;
 
    // Case 1 : Remove the trailing
    // vowels
    while (ptr != NULL) {
 
        // If current Node is a vowel
        // node then move the pointer
        // to next node
        if (isVowel(ptr->data))
            ptr = ptr->next;
 
        // Else break if a consonant
        // node is found
        else
            break;
    }
 
    // This prev node used to link
    // prev consonant to next
    // consonant after vowels
    struct Node* prev = ptr;
 
    // Head points to the first
    // consonant of the linked list
    head = ptr;
 
    ptr = ptr->next;
 
    // Case 2: If vowels found in
    // between of the linked list
    while (ptr != NULL) {
 
        // If current node is vowel
        if (isVowel(ptr->data)) {
 
            // Move ptr to the next
            // node
            ptr = ptr->next;
 
            // Check for vowels
            // occurring continuously
            while (ptr != NULL) {
 
                // If ptr is a vowel
                // move to next pointer
                if (isVowel(ptr->data)) {
                    ptr = ptr->next;
                }
                // Else break if
                // consonant found
                else
                    break;
            }
 
            // Case 3: If we have ending
            // vowels then link the prev
            // consonant to NULL
            if (ptr == NULL) {
                prev->next = NULL;
                break;
            }
 
            // Case 2: change the next
            // link of prev to current
            // consonant pointing to
            // ptr
            else {
                prev->next = ptr;
            }
        }
 
        // Move prev and ptr to next
        // for next iteration
        prev = prev->next;
        ptr = ptr->next;
    }
}
 
// Driver code
int main()
{
    // Initialise the Linked List
    head = newNode('a');
    head->next = newNode('b');
    head->next->next = newNode('c');
    head->next->next->next = newNode('e');
    head->next->next->next->next = newNode('f');
    head->next->next->next->next->next = newNode('g');
    head->next->next->next->next->next->next = newNode('i');
    head->next->next->next->next->next->next->next = newNode('o');
 
    // Print the given Linked List
    printf("Linked list before :\n");
    printlist(head);
 
    removeVowels();
 
    // Print the Linked List after
    // removing vowels
    printf("Linked list after :\n");
    printlist(head);
 
    return 0;
}

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Java

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// Java program to remove vowels
// Nodes in a linked list
import java.io.*;
 
// A linked list node
class Node
{
  char data;
  Node next;
 
  // Function to add new node to the
  // List
  Node(char item)
  {
    data = item;
    next = null;
  }
}
class GFG
{
 
  // Head Node
  public static Node head;
 
  // Utility function to print the
  // linked list
  static void printlist(Node head)
  {
    if(head == null)
    {
      System.out.println("Empty List");
 
    }
    while(head != null)
    {
      System.out.print(head.data + " ");
      if(head.next != null)
      {
        System.out.print("-> ");  
      }
      head = head.next;
    }
    System.out.println();
  }
 
  // Utility function for checking vowel
  static boolean isVowel(char x)
  {
    return (x == 'a' || x == 'e' || x == 'i' ||
            x == 'o' || x == 'u' || x == 'A' ||
            x == 'E' || x == 'I' || x == 'O' || x == 'U');
 
  }
 
  // Function to remove the vowels Node
  static void removeVowels()
  {
 
    // Node pointing to head Node
    Node ptr = head;
 
    // Case 1 : Remove the trailing
    // vowels
    while(ptr != null)
    {
 
      // If current Node is a vowel
      // node then move the pointer
      // to next node
      if(isVowel(ptr.data))
      {
        ptr = ptr.next;
      }
 
      // Else break if a consonant
      // node is found
      else
      {
        break;
      }
    }
 
    // This prev node used to link
    // prev consonant to next
    // consonant after vowels
    Node prev = ptr;
 
    // Head points to the first
    // consonant of the linked list
    head = ptr;
    ptr = ptr.next;
 
    // Case 2: If vowels found in
    // between of the linked list
    while(ptr != null)
    {
 
      // If current node is vowel
      if(isVowel(ptr.data))
      {
 
        // Move ptr to the next
        // node
        ptr = ptr.next;
 
        // Check for vowels
        // occurring continuously
        while(ptr != null)
        {
 
          // If ptr is a vowel
          // move to next pointer
          if(isVowel(ptr.data))
          {
            ptr = ptr.next;
          }
 
          // Else break if
          // consonant found
          else
          {
            break;
          }
        }
 
        // Case 3: If we have ending
        // vowels then link the prev
        // consonant to NULL
        if(ptr == null)
        {
          prev.next = null;
          break;
        }
 
        // Case 2: change the next
        // link of prev to current
        // consonant pointing to
        // ptr
        else
        {
          prev.next = ptr;
        }
      }
 
      // Move prev and ptr to next
      // for next iteration
      prev = prev.next;
      ptr = ptr.next;
    }
  }
 
  // Driver code
  public static void main (String[] args)
  {
 
    // Initialise the Linked List
    GFG tree = new GFG();
    tree.head = new Node('a');
    tree.head.next = new Node('b');
    tree.head.next.next = new Node('c');
    tree.head.next.next.next = new Node('e');
    tree.head.next.next.next.next = new Node('f');
    tree.head.next.next.next.next.next = new Node('g');
    tree.head.next.next.next.next.next.next = new Node('i');
    tree.head.next.next.next.next.next.next.next = new Node('o');
 
    // Print the given Linked List
    System.out.println("Linked list before :");
    printlist(head);
    removeVowels();
 
    // Print the Linked List after
    // removing vowels
    System.out.println("Linked list after :");
    printlist(head);
  }
}
 
// This code is contributed by avanitrachhadiya2155

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Python3

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# Python3 program to remove vowels
# Nodes in a linked list
 
# A linked list node
class Node:
    def __init__(self, x):
        self.data = x
        self.next = None
 
# Head Node
head = None
 
# Utility function to print the
# linked list
def printlist(head):
    if (not head):
        print("Empty List")
        return
 
    while (head != None):
        print(head.data, end = " ")
        if (head.next):
            print(end="-> ")
        head = head.next
    print()
 
# Utility function for checking vowel
def isVowel(x):
    return (x == 'a' or x == 'e' or x == 'i'
            or x == 'o' or x == 'u' or x == 'A'
            or x == 'E' or x == 'I' or x == 'O'
            or x == 'U')
 
# Function to remove the vowels Node
def removeVowels():
    global head
     
    # Node pointing to head Node
    ptr = head
 
    # Case 1 : Remove the trailing
    # vowels
    while (ptr != None):
 
        # If current Node is a vowel
        # node then move the pointer
        # to next node
        if (isVowel(ptr.data)):
            ptr = ptr.next
 
        # Else break if a consonant
        # node is found
        else:
            break
 
    # This prev node used to link
    # prev consonant to next
    # consonant after vowels
    prev = ptr
 
    # Head points to the first
    # consonant of the linked list
    head = ptr
 
    ptr = ptr.next
 
    # Case 2: If vowels found in
    # between of the linked list
    while (ptr != None):
 
        # If current node is vowel
        if (isVowel(ptr.data)):
 
            # Move ptr to the next
            # node
            ptr = ptr.next
 
            # Check for vowels
            # occurring continuously
            while (ptr != None):
 
                # If ptr is a vowel
                # move to next pointer
                if (isVowel(ptr.data)):
                    ptr = ptr.next
                 
                # Else break if
                # consonant found
                else:
                    break
 
            # Case 3: If we have ending
            # vowels then link the prev
            # consonant to NULL
            if (ptr == None):
                prev.next = None
                break
 
            # Case 2: change the next
            # link of prev to current
            # consonant pointing to
            # ptr
            else:
                prev.next = ptr
 
        # Move prev and ptr to next
        # for next iteration
        prev = prev.next
        ptr = ptr.next
 
# Driver code
if __name__ == '__main__':
     
    # Initialise the Linked List
    head = Node('a')
    head.next = Node('b')
    head.next.next = Node('c')
    head.next.next.next = Node('e')
    head.next.next.next.next = Node('f')
    head.next.next.next.next.next = Node('g')
    head.next.next.next.next.next.next = Node('i')
    head.next.next.next.next.next.next.next = Node('o')
 
    # Print the given Linked List
    print("Linked list before :")
    printlist(head)
 
    removeVowels()
 
    # Print the Linked List after
    # removing vowels
    print("Linked list after :")
    printlist(head)
 
    # This code is contributed by mohit kumar 29

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C#

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// C# program to remove vowels
// Nodes in a linked list
using System;
 
// A linked list node
class Node
{
    public char data;
    public Node next;
     
    // Function to add new node to the
    // List
    public Node(char item)
    {
        data = item;
        next = null;
    }
}
 
class GFG{
     
// Head Node
static Node head;
 
// Utility function to print the
// linked list
static void printlist(Node head)
{
    if (head == null)
    {
        Console.WriteLine("Empty List");
    }
    while (head != null)
    {
        Console.Write(head.data + " ");
         
        if (head.next != null)
        {
            Console.Write("-> ");  
        }
        head = head.next;
    }
    Console.WriteLine();
}
 
// Utility function for checking vowel
static bool isVowel(char x)
{
    return (x == 'a' || x == 'e' ||
            x == 'i' || x == 'o' ||
            x == 'u' || x == 'A' ||
            x == 'E' || x == 'I' ||
            x == 'O' || x == 'U');
}
 
// Function to remove the vowels Node
static void removeVowels()
{
     
    // Node pointing to head Node
    Node ptr = head;
     
    // Case 1 : Remove the trailing
    // vowels
    while (ptr != null)
    {
         
        // If current Node is a vowel
        // node then move the pointer
        // to next node
        if (isVowel(ptr.data))
        {
            ptr = ptr.next;
        }
         
        // Else break if a consonant
        // node is found
        else
        {
            break;
        }
    }
     
    // This prev node used to link
    // prev consonant to next
    // consonant after vowels
    Node prev = ptr;
     
    // Head points to the first
    // consonant of the linked list
    head = ptr;
    ptr = ptr.next;
     
    // Case 2: If vowels found in
    // between of the linked list
    while (ptr != null)
    {
         
        // If current node is vowel
        if (isVowel(ptr.data))
        {
             
            // Move ptr to the next
            // node
            ptr = ptr.next;
             
            // Check for vowels
            // occurring continuously
            while (ptr != null)
            {
                 
                // If ptr is a vowel
                // move to next pointer
                if (isVowel(ptr.data))
                {
                    ptr = ptr.next;
                }
                 
                // Else break if
                // consonant found
                else
                {
                    break;
                }
            }
             
            // Case 3: If we have ending
            // vowels then link the prev
            // consonant to NULL
            if (ptr == null)
            {
                prev.next = null;
                break;
            }
             
            // Case 2: change the next
            // link of prev to current
            // consonant pointing to
            // ptr
            else
            {
                prev.next = ptr;
            }
        }
         
        // Move prev and ptr to next
        // for next iteration
        prev = prev.next;
        ptr = ptr.next;
    }
}
 
// Driver code
static public void Main()
{
     
    // Initialise the Linked List
    GFG.head = new Node('a');
    GFG.head.next = new Node('b');
    GFG.head.next.next = new Node('c');
    GFG.head.next.next.next = new Node('e');
    GFG.head.next.next.next.next = new Node('f');
    GFG.head.next.next.next.next.next = new Node('g');
    GFG.head.next.next.next.next.next.next = new Node('i');
    GFG.head.next.next.next.next.next.next.next = new Node('o');
     
    // Print the given Linked List
    Console.WriteLine("Linked list before :");
    printlist(head);
    removeVowels();
     
    // Print the Linked List after
    // removing vowels
    Console.WriteLine("Linked list after :");
    printlist(head);
}
}
 
// This code is contributed by rag2127

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Output: 

Linked list before :
a -> b -> c -> e -> f -> g -> i -> o 
Linked list after :
b -> c -> f -> g

 

Time Complexity: O(N) where N is the number of nodes in the linked list.
 

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