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Program to invert bits of a number Efficiently

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Given a non-negative integer N. The task is to invert the bits of the number N and print the decimal equivalent of the number obtained after inverting the bits. 
Note: Leading 0’s are not being considered.
Examples: 
 

Input : 11
Output : 4
(11)10 = (1011)2
After inverting the bits, we get:
(0100)2 = (4)10.
Input : 20
Output : 11
(20)10 = (10100)2.
After inverting the bits, we get:
(01011)2 = (11)10.


 


A similar problem is already discussed in Invert actual bits of a number.
In this article, an efficient approach using bitwise operators is discussed. Below is the step by step algorithm to solve the problem:
 

  1. Calculate the total number of bits in the given number. This can be done by calculating:
X = log2N

Where N is the given number and X is the total number of bits of N.

  1. The next step is to generate a number with X bits and all bits set. That is, 11111….X-times. This can be done by calculating:
Step-1: M = 1 << X
Step-2: M = M | (M-1)
  1. Where M is the required X-bit number with all bits set.
  2. The final step is to calculate the bit-wise XOR of M with N, which will be our answer.


Below is the implementation of the above approach: 
 

C++

// C++ program to invert actual bits
// of a number.
#include <bits/stdc++.h>
 
using namespace std;
 
// Function to invert bits of a number
int invertBits(int n)
{
    // Calculate number of bits of N-1;
    int x = log2(n) ;
 
    int m = 1 << x;
 
    m = m | m - 1;
 
    n = n ^ m;
 
    return n;
}
 
// Driver code
int main()
{
    int n = 20;
 
    cout << invertBits(n);
 
    return 0;
}

                    

Java

// Java program to invert
// actual bits of a number.
import java.util.*;
 
class GFG
{
// Function to invert
// bits of a number
static int invertBits(int n)
{
    // Calculate number of bits of N-1;
    int x = (int)(Math.log(n) /
                  Math.log(2)) ;
 
    int m = 1 << x;
 
    m = m | m - 1;
 
    n = n ^ m;
 
    return n;
}
 
// Driver code
public static void main(String[] args)
{
    int n = 20;
 
    System.out.print(invertBits(n));
}
}
 
// This code is contributed by Smitha

                    

Python3

# Python3 program to invert actual
# bits of a number.
import math
 
# Function to invert bits of a number
def invertBits(n):
     
    # Calculate number of bits of N-1
    x = int(math.log(n, 2))
 
    m = 1 << x
 
    m = m | m - 1
 
    n = n ^ m
 
    return n
 
# Driver code
n = 20
 
print(invertBits(n))
 
# This code is contributed 29AjayKumar

                    

C#

// C# program to invert
// actual bits of a number.
using System;
 
 
  
public class GFG
{
// Function to invert
// bits of a number
static int invertBits(int n)
{
    // Calculate number of bits of N-1;
    int x = (int)(Math.Log(n) /
                  Math.Log(2)) ;
  
    int m = 1 << x;
  
    m = m | m - 1;
  
    n = n ^ m;
  
    return n;
}
  
// Driver code
public static void Main()
{
    int n = 20;
  
    Console.Write(invertBits(n));
}
}
  
// This code is contributed by Subhadeep

                    

Javascript

<script>
 
// Javascript program to invert actual bits
// of a number.
 
// Function to invert bits of a number
function invertBits(n)
{
    // Calculate number of bits of N-1;
    let x = parseInt(Math.log(n) / Math.log(2)) ;
 
    let m = 1 << x;
 
    m = m | m - 1;
 
    n = n ^ m;
 
    return n;
}
 
// Driver code
    let n = 20;
 
    document.write(invertBits(n));
 
</script>

                    

PHP

<?php
// PHP program to invert actual
// bits of a number.
 
// Function to invert bits
// of a number
function invertBits($n)
{
    // Calculate number of
    // bits of N-1;
    $x = log($n, 2);
 
    $m = 1 << $x;
 
    $m = $m | $m - 1;
 
    $n = $n ^ $m;
 
    return $n;
}
 
// Driver code
$n = 20;
 
echo(invertBits($n));
 
// This code is contributed
// by mits
?>

                    

Output
11







Time Complexity: O(log2n) 
Auxiliary Space: O(1)
 

Method#2: Using Bitwise NOT operator and Bitwise AND operator

Approach

1. Find the number of bits required to represent the given number.
2. Initialize a variable ‘mask’ to 2^bits-1.
3. XOR the given number with ‘mask’ and store the result in ‘result’.
4. Return ‘result’.

Algorithm

1. Initialize a variable ‘num’ with the given number.
2. Initialize a variable ‘result’ to 0.
3. Initialize a variable ‘bits’ to 0.
4. Calculate the number of bits required to represent ‘num’ and store it in ‘bits’.
5. Initialize a variable ‘mask’ to 2^bits-1.
6. XOR ‘num’ with ‘mask’ and store the result in ‘result’.
7. Return ‘result’.

C++

#include <iostream>
 
int invertBits(int num) {
    // Count number of bits
    int count = 0;
    int temp = num;
    while (temp > 0) {
        count++;
        temp >>= 1;
    }
 
    // Bitwise NOT of num gives a number with all ones
    // up to the count of bits
    // Bitwise AND with num inverts the bits
    return (~num) & ((1 << count) - 1);
}
 
int main() {
    int num = 11;
    std::cout << invertBits(num) << std::endl;
    return 0;
}

                    

Java

public class InvertBits {
    // Function to invert bits in an integer
    static int invertBits(int num)
    {
        // Count number of bits
        int count = 0;
        int temp = num;
        while (temp > 0) {
            count++;
            temp >>= 1;
        }
 
        // Bitwise NOT of num gives a number with all ones
        // up to the count of bits
        // Bitwise AND with num inverts the bits
        return (~num) & ((1 << count) - 1);
    }
 
    // Main method
    public static void main(String[] args)
    {
        // Example integer
        int num = 11;
 
        // Call the invertBits function
        int invertedNum = invertBits(num);
 
        // Output the result
        System.out.println(invertedNum);
    }
}

                    

Python3

def invert_bits(num):
    # Count number of bits
    count = 0
    temp = num
    while temp > 0:
        count += 1
        temp >>= 1
     
    # Bitwise NOT of num
    # gives a number with all ones
    # up to the count of bits
    # Bitwise AND with num inverts the bits
    return (~num) & ((1 << count) - 1)
num=11
print(invert_bits(num))

                    

C#

using System;
 
class Program {
    static int InvertBits(int num)
    {
        // Count the number of bits
        int count = 0;
        int temp = num;
        while (temp > 0) {
            count++;
            temp >>= 1;
        }
 
        // Bitwise NOT of num gives a number with all ones
        // up to the count of bits Bitwise AND with num
        // inverts the bits
        return (~num) & ((1 << count) - 1);
    }
 
    static void Main()
    {
        int num = 11;
        Console.WriteLine(InvertBits(num));
    }
}

                    

Javascript

function invertBits(num) {
    // Count number of bits
    let count = 0;
    let temp = num;
    while (temp > 0) {
        count++;
        temp >>= 1;
    }
 
    // Bitwise NOT of num gives a number with all ones
    // up to the count of bits
    // Bitwise AND with num inverts the bits
    return (~num) & ((1 << count) - 1);
}
 
function main() {
    let num = 11;
    console.log(invertBits(num));
}
 
// Run the main function
main();

                    

Output
4







Time complexity: O(log n) where n is the given number.
Auxiliary Space: O(1)

METHOD 3:Using defaultdict method

APPROACH:

This program uses a defaultdict object to invert the bits of a given input number. The input number is first converted to a binary string, and then each bit of the string is toggled using a defaultdict object. Finally, the inverted bits are converted back to an integer.

ALGORITHM:

1.Convert the input number to a binary string.
2.Create a defaultdict object with int type as the default value.
3.Iterate through the binary string and toggle each bit by setting its value in the defaultdict to the opposite of its original value.
4.Convert the inverted bits back to a binary string and then to an integer using the built-in int() function.
5.Return the inverted integer.

C++

// CPP program for the above approach
#include <bitset>
#include <iostream>
#include <string>
#include <unordered_map>
 
using namespace std;
 
int invert_bits(int num)
{
    // Convert the number to binary string and remove the
    // leading zeros
    string binary_str = bitset<32>(num).to_string().substr(
        bitset<32>(num).to_string().find('1'));
    unordered_map<int, int> inverted_bits;
    // Iterate through the binary string and toggle each bit
    for (size_t i = 0; i < binary_str.size(); ++i) {
        inverted_bits[i] = 1 - (binary_str[i] - '0');
    }
    // Convert the inverted bits back to a binary string and
    // then to an integer
    int inverted_num = 0;
    for (size_t i = 0; i < binary_str.size(); ++i) {
        inverted_num |= (inverted_bits[i]
                         << (binary_str.size() - 1 - i));
    }
    return inverted_num;
}
 
int main()
{
    int num = 20;
    int inverted_num = invert_bits(num);
    cout << inverted_num << endl; // Output: 11
    return 0;
}
 
// This code is contributed by Susobhan Akhuli

                    

Java

// Java program for the above approach
import java.util.HashMap;
 
public class GFG {
 
    public static int invertBits(int num)
    {
        // Convert the number to binary string and remove
        // the leading zeros
        String binaryStr
            = Integer.toBinaryString(num).replaceFirst(
                "^0+(?!$)", "");
        HashMap<Integer, Integer> invertedBits
            = new HashMap<>();
 
        // Iterate through the binary string and toggle each
        // bit
        for (int i = 0; i < binaryStr.length(); i++) {
            int bit = binaryStr.charAt(i) == '1' ? 0 : 1;
            invertedBits.put(i, bit);
        }
 
        // Convert the inverted bits back to an integer
        int invertedNum = 0;
        for (int i = 0; i < binaryStr.length(); i++) {
            int bit = invertedBits.get(i);
            invertedNum
                |= (bit << (binaryStr.length() - 1 - i));
        }
 
        return invertedNum;
    }
 
    public static void main(String[] args)
    {
        int num = 20;
        int invertedNum = invertBits(num);
        System.out.println(invertedNum); // Output: 11
    }
}
 
// This code is contributed by Susobhan Akhuli

                    

Python3

from collections import defaultdict
 
def invert_bits(num):
    # Convert the number to binary string and remove the '0b' prefix
    binary_str = bin(num)[2:]
    # Create a defaultdict with int type as the default value
    inverted_bits = defaultdict(int)
    # Iterate through the binary string and toggle each bit
    for i, bit in enumerate(binary_str):
        inverted_bits[i] = int(not int(bit))
    # Convert the inverted bits back to a binary string and then to an integer
    inverted_num = int(''.join(str(inverted_bits[i]) for i in range(len(binary_str))), 2)
    return inverted_num
 
# Example usage
num = 20
inverted_num = invert_bits(num)
print(inverted_num)  # Output: 11

                    

Output
11








Time Complexity:
The time complexity of this program depends on the length of the binary string representation of the input number. The program iterates through the binary string once, which takes O(n) time, where n is the length of the binary string. Converting the inverted bits back to an integer using the int() function takes O(n) time as well. Therefore, the overall time complexity of the program is O(n).

Space Complexity:
The space complexity of this program is also O(n), as the defaultdict object is used to store the inverted bits, and the size of the defaultdict object is proportional to the length of the binary string.



Last Updated : 24 Feb, 2024
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