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Program to implement Run Length Encoding using Linked Lists

  • Last Updated : 29 Jul, 2021

Given a Linked List as the input. The task is to encode the given linked list using Run Length Encoding. That is, to replace a block of contiguous characters by the character followed by it’s count. 
For Example, in Run Length Encoding “a->a->a->a->a” will be replaced by “a->5”.
Note: For non-repeating nodes, do not append the count 1. For example, a->b->b will be replaced by “a->b->2” and not “a->1->b->2”.
Examples: 
 

Input : List = a->a->a->a->a->b->r->r->r->NULL 
Output : a->5->b->r->3->NULL 
Explanation : 
The character ‘a’ repeats 5 times. 
The character ‘b’ repeats 1 time. 
The character ‘r’ repeats 3 times. 
Hence the output is a->5->b->r->3->NULL.
Input : a->a->a->a->a->a->a->a->a->a->b->r->r->r->a->a->a->NULL 
Output : a->1->0->b->r->3->a->3->NULL 
 

 

Approach
 

  • Traverse through the list.
  • Consider the first character as c.
  • Consider the current character as x.
  • If the character is the same as c then increment the count.
  • If the characters are not same then add the count to the list and append the next character to the list reset the count to 1.

 



C++




// C++ program to encode a linked list
// using Run Length Encoding
 
#include <bits/stdc++.h>
using namespace std;
 
// A linked list node
struct Node {
    char data;
    struct Node* next;
    Node(int x)
    {
        data = x;
        next = NULL;
    }
};
 
// Function to append nodes to a list
void append(struct Node* head_ref, char new_data)
{
    struct Node* new_node = new Node(new_data);
 
    struct Node* last = head_ref;
 
    if (head_ref == NULL) {
        head_ref = new_node;
        return;
    }
 
    while (last->next != NULL)
        last = last->next;
 
    last->next = new_node;
    return;
}
 
// Function to print list
void printList(Node* node)
{
    while (node != NULL) {
        cout << node->data << " ";
 
        node = node->next;
    }
}
 
// Function to encode the list
void RLE(Node* head)
{
    // Pointer used to traverse through
    // all the nodes in the list
    Node* p = head;
 
    // List to store the encoded message
    Node* temp = new Node(p->data);
 
    // Store the first character in c
    char c = p->data;
    p = p->next;
 
    // Count to count the number of
    // continuous elements
    int count = 1;
 
    // Traverse through all the
    // elements in the list
    while (p != NULL) {
 
        // Store the current character in x
        char x = p->data;
 
        // If the characters are same
        if (c == x)
            // Increment count
            count++;
        // Else
        else {
 
            // If the count is greater than 1
            if (count > 1) {
 
                // Append the count to list
                if (count > 9)
                    append(temp, '0' + (count / 10));
 
                append(temp, '0' + (count % 10));
            }
 
            // Reset the count
            count = 1;
 
            // Add the next character
            // to the list
            append(temp, x);
 
            // Take the character to check as
            // the current character
            c = x;
        }
        p = p->next;
    }
 
    // Add the final count
    if (count != 0)
        append(temp, '0' + count);
 
    // Print the list
    printList(temp);
}
 
// Driver code
int main()
{
    // Creating the linked list
    Node* head = new Node('a');
    head->next = new Node('a');
    head->next->next = new Node('a');
    head->next->next->next = new Node('b');
    head->next->next->next->next = new Node('r');
    head->next->next->next->next->next = new Node('r');
 
    RLE(head);
 
    return 0;
}

Java




// Java program to encode a linked list
// using Run Length Encoding
class GFG
{
 
// A linked list node
static class Node
{
    char data;
    Node next;
};
 
// Utility function to create a new Node
static Node newNode(char data)
{
    Node temp = new Node();
    temp.data = data;
    temp.next = null;
 
    return temp;
}
 
// Function to append nodes to a list
static void append(Node head_ref, char new_data)
{
    Node new_node = newNode(new_data);
 
    Node last = head_ref;
 
    if (head_ref == null)
    {
        head_ref = new_node;
        return;
    }
 
    while (last.next != null)
        last = last.next;
 
    last.next = new_node;
    return;
}
 
// Function to print list
static void printList(Node node)
{
    while (node != null)
    {
        System.out.print(node.data+" ");
 
        node = node.next;
    }
}
 
// Function to encode the list
static void RLE(Node head)
{
    // Pointer used to traverse through
    // all the nodes in the list
    Node p = head;
 
    // List to store the encoded message
    Node temp = newNode(p.data);
 
    // Store the first character in c
    char c = p.data;
    p = p.next;
 
    // Count to count the number of
    // continuous elements
    int count = 1;
 
    // Traverse through all the
    // elements in the list
    while (p != null)
    {
 
        // Store the current character in x
        char x = p.data;
 
        // If the characters are same
        if (c == x)
            // Increment count
            count++;
        // Else
        else
        {
 
            // If the count is greater than 1
            if (count > 1)
            {
 
                // Append the count to list
                if (count > 9)
                    append(temp, (char) ('0' + (count / 10)));
 
                append(temp, (char) ('0' + (count % 10)));
            }
 
            // Reset the count
            count = 1;
 
            // Add the next character
            // to the list
            append(temp, x);
 
            // Take the character to check as
            // the current character
            c = x;
        }
        p = p.next;
    }
 
    // Add the final count
    if (count != 0)
        append(temp, (char) ('0' + count));
 
    // Print the list
    printList(temp);
}
 
// Driver code
public static void main(String[] args)
{
    // Creating the linked list
    Node head = newNode('a');
    head.next = newNode('a');
    head.next.next = newNode('a');
    head.next.next.next = newNode('b');
    head.next.next.next.next = newNode('r');
    head.next.next.next.next.next = newNode('r');
 
    RLE(head);
    }
}
 
// This code has been contributed by 29AjayKumar

Python3




# Python3 program to encode a linked list
# using Run Length Encoding
  
# A linked list node
class Node: 
    def __init__(self, data):      
        self.data = data
        self.next = None
  
# Function to append nodes to a list
def append(head_ref, new_data):
    _node = Node(new_data);
    last = head_ref;
    if (head_ref == None):
        head_ref =_node;
        return;
    while (last.next != None):
        last = last.next;
    last.next =_node;
    return;
  
# Function to print list
def printList(node):
    while (node != None):       
        print(node.data, end = ' ')
        node = node.next;
      
# Function to encode the list
def RLE(head):
 
    # Pointer used to traverse through
    # all the nodes in the list
    p = head;
  
    # List to store the encoded message
    temp = Node(p.data);
  
    # Store the first character in c
    c = p.data;
    p = p.next;
  
    # Count to count the number of
    # continuous elements
    count = 1;
  
    # Traverse through all the
    # elements in the list
    while (p != None):
  
        # Store the current character in x
        x = p.data;
  
        # If the characters are same
        if (c == x):
       
            # Increment count
            count += 1
           
        # Else
        else:
  
            # If the count is greater than 1
            if (count > 1):
  
                # Append the count to list
                if (count > 9):
                    append(temp, chr(ord('0') + (count // 10)));
  
                append(temp, chr(ord('0') + (count % 10)));
  
            # Reset the count
            count = 1;
  
            # Add the next character
            # to the list
            append(temp, x);
  
            # Take the character to check as
            # the current character
            c = x;
     
        p = p.next;
  
    # Add the final count
    if (count != 0):
        append(temp, chr(ord('0') + count))
  
    # Print the list
    printList(temp);
  
# Driver code
if __name__=='__main__':
     
    # Creating the linked list
    head = Node('a');
    head.next = Node('a');
    head.next.next = Node('a');
    head.next.next.next = Node('b');
    head.next.next.next.next = Node('r');
    head.next.next.next.next.next = Node('r');
  
    RLE(head);
  
# This code is contributed by pratham76

C#




// C# program to encode a linked list
// using Run Length Encoding
using System;
 
class GFG
{
 
// A linked list node
public class Node
{
    public char data;
    public Node next;
};
 
// Utility function to create a new Node
static Node newNode(char data)
{
    Node temp = new Node();
    temp.data = data;
    temp.next = null;
 
    return temp;
}
 
// Function to append nodes to a list
static void append(Node head_ref, char new_data)
{
    Node new_node = newNode(new_data);
 
    Node last = head_ref;
 
    if (head_ref == null)
    {
        head_ref = new_node;
        return;
    }
 
    while (last.next != null)
        last = last.next;
 
    last.next = new_node;
    return;
}
 
// Function to print list
static void printList(Node node)
{
    while (node != null)
    {
        Console.Write(node.data+" ");
 
        node = node.next;
    }
}
 
// Function to encode the list
static void RLE(Node head)
{
    // Pointer used to traverse through
    // all the nodes in the list
    Node p = head;
 
    // List to store the encoded message
    Node temp = newNode(p.data);
 
    // Store the first character in c
    char c = p.data;
    p = p.next;
 
    // Count to count the number of
    // continuous elements
    int count = 1;
 
    // Traverse through all the
    // elements in the list
    while (p != null)
    {
 
        // Store the current character in x
        char x = p.data;
 
        // If the characters are same
        if (c == x)
         
            // Increment count
            count++;
             
        // Else
        else
        {
 
            // If the count is greater than 1
            if (count > 1)
            {
 
                // Append the count to list
                if (count > 9)
                    append(temp, (char) ('0' + (count / 10)));
 
                append(temp, (char) ('0' + (count % 10)));
            }
 
            // Reset the count
            count = 1;
 
            // Add the next character
            // to the list
            append(temp, x);
 
            // Take the character to check as
            // the current character
            c = x;
        }
        p = p.next;
    }
 
    // Add the final count
    if (count != 0)
        append(temp, (char) ('0' + count));
 
    // Print the list
    printList(temp);
}
 
// Driver code
public static void Main()
{
    // Creating the linked list
    Node head = newNode('a');
    head.next = newNode('a');
    head.next.next = newNode('a');
    head.next.next.next = newNode('b');
    head.next.next.next.next = newNode('r');
    head.next.next.next.next.next = newNode('r');
 
    RLE(head);
}
}
 
/* This code contributed by PrinciRaj1992 */

Javascript




<script>
 
      // JavaScript program to encode a linked list
      // using Run Length Encoding
      // A linked list node
      class Node {
        constructor() {
          this.data = 0;
          this.next = null;
        }
      }
 
      // Utility function to create a new Node
      function newNode(data) {
        var temp = new Node();
        temp.data = data;
        temp.next = null;
 
        return temp;
      }
 
      // Function to append nodes to a list
      function append(head_ref, new_data) {
        var new_node = newNode(new_data);
 
        var last = head_ref;
 
        if (head_ref == null) {
          head_ref = new_node;
          return;
        }
 
        while (last.next != null) last = last.next;
 
        last.next = new_node;
        return;
      }
 
      // Function to print list
      function printList(node) {
        while (node != null) {
          document.write(node.data + " ");
 
          node = node.next;
        }
      }
 
      // Function to encode the list
      function RLE(head) {
        // Pointer used to traverse through
        // all the nodes in the list
        var p = head;
 
        // List to store the encoded message
        var temp = newNode(p.data);
 
        // Store the first character in c
        var c = p.data;
        p = p.next;
 
        // Count to count the number of
        // continuous elements
        var count = 1;
 
        // Traverse through all the
        // elements in the list
        while (p != null) {
          // Store the current character in x
          var x = p.data;
 
          // If the characters are same
          if (c == x)
            // Increment count
            count++;
          // Else
          else {
            // If the count is greater than 1
            if (count > 1) {
              // Append the count to list
              if (count > 9)
                append(
                  temp,
                  String.fromCharCode("0".charCodeAt(0) +
                  parseInt(count / 10))
                );
 
              append(
                temp,
                String.fromCharCode("0".charCodeAt(0) +
                (count % 10))
              );
            }
 
            // Reset the count
            count = 1;
 
            // Add the next character
            // to the list
            append(temp, x);
 
            // Take the character to check as
            // the current character
            c = x;
          }
          p = p.next;
        }
 
        // Add the final count
        if (count != 0)
          append(temp, String.fromCharCode("0".charCodeAt(0) +
          count));
 
        // Print the list
        printList(temp);
      }
 
      // Driver code
      // Creating the linked list
      var head = newNode("a");
      head.next = newNode("a");
      head.next.next = newNode("a");
      head.next.next.next = newNode("b");
      head.next.next.next.next = newNode("r");
      head.next.next.next.next.next = newNode("r");
 
      RLE(head);
       
</script>
Output: 
a 3 b r 2

 

In Place Conversion: The idea here is to modify the existing list based on the frequency of characters rather than creating a new list if system enforces space constraint. 
 

  1. Traverse through the list.
  2. Compare current character with the next character. If same then increment the count value.
  3. Delete nodes whose frequency is greater than 2. 
     
  4. If characters are not same, then update the count value.

 

CPP




// C++ program implementing run length encoding
#include<stdio.h>
#include<stdlib.h>
 
struct Node
{
    char data;
    struct Node* next;
    Node(int x)
    {
        data = x;
        next = NULL;
    }
};
 
// Function to add node to the list
Node* insert (Node *head, int data)
{
    if (head == NULL)
        return new Node(data);
    head->next = insert(head->next, data);
    return head;
}
 
// Function to print the list
void printList (Node* head)
{
    while (head != NULL)
    {
        printf ("%c ",head->data);
        head = head->next;
    }
    return;
}
 
void runLengthEncode (Node* head)
{
    Node* temp = NULL;
    Node* ptr = NULL;
    int count = 0; //count the number of characters
 
    temp = head;
    while (temp != NULL)
    {
        ptr = temp;
        count = 1;
        //check if current data and next data is same.If same, then increment count
        while (temp->next != NULL &&
                temp->data == temp->next->data)
        {
            count++;
            if (count > 2)
            {
                // delete only when the node value is repeated more than
                // twice.
                ptr->next = temp->next;
                free(temp);
                temp = ptr;
            }
            temp = temp->next;
        }
 
        // update only when the node value is repeated more than one time.
        if (count > 1)
            temp->data = count + '0';
        temp = temp->next;
    }
    return;
}
 
// Driver code
int main()
{
    // Creating the linked list
    Node* head = new Node('a');
    head->next = new Node('a');
    head->next->next = new Node('a');
    head->next->next->next = new Node('b');
    head->next->next->next->next = new Node('r');
    head->next->next->next->next->next = new Node('r');
 
    runLengthEncode (head);
    printList (head);
    return 0;
}

Python3




# Python3 program implementing run length encoding
class Node:
     
    def __init__(self, data):      
        self.data = data
        self.next = None
 
# Function to add node to the list
def insert(head, data):
    if (head == None):
        return Node(data);
    head.next = insert(head.next, data);
    return head;
 
# Function to print the list
def printList(head):
    while (head != None):   
        print(head.data, end = ' ')
        head = head.next;   
    return;
 
def runLengthEncode(head):
    temp = None;
    ptr = None;
    count = 0; #count the number of characters
 
    temp = head;
    while (temp != None):   
        ptr = temp;
        count = 1;
         
        # check if current data and next data
        # is same.If same, then increment count
        while (temp.next != None and
               temp.data == temp.next.data):       
            count += 1
            if (count > 2):
             
                # delete only when the node
                # value is repeated more than
                # twice.
                ptr.next = temp.next;
                del (temp);
                temp = ptr;
             
            temp = temp.next;
         
        # update only when the node value
        # is repeated more than one time.
        if (count > 1):
            temp.data = count ;
        temp = temp.next;   
    return;
 
# Driver code
if __name__=='__main__':
     
    # Creating the linked list
    head = Node('a');
    head.next = Node('a');
    head.next.next = Node('a');
    head.next.next.next = Node('b');
    head.next.next.next.next = Node('r');
    head.next.next.next.next.next = Node('r');
 
    runLengthEncode(head);
    printList(head);
     
    # This code is contributed by rutvik_56

Javascript




<script>
 
// JavaScript program implementing
// run length encoding
 
class Node
{
    constructor(x)
    {
        this.data=x;
        this.next=null;
    }
}
 
// Function to add node to the list
function insert (head,data)
{
    if (head == null)
        return new Node(data);
    head.next = insert(head.next, data);
    return head;
}
 
// Function to print the list
function printList (head)
{
    while (head != null)
    {
        document.write(head.data+" ");
        head = head.next;
    }
    return;
}
 
function runLengthEncode (head)
{
    let temp = null;
    let ptr = null;
    let count = 0; //count the number of characters
  
    temp = head;
    while (temp != null)
    {
        ptr = temp;
        count = 1;
        //check if current data and next data is same.If same,
        // then increment count
        while (temp.next != null &&
                temp.data == temp.next.data)
        {
            count++;
            if (count > 2)
            {
                // delete only when the node value
                // is repeated more than
                // twice.
                ptr.next = temp.next;
                delete(temp);
                temp = ptr;
            }
            temp = temp.next;
        }
  
        // update only when the node value is
        // repeated more than one time.
        if (count > 1)
            temp.data = count ;
        temp = temp.next;
    }
    return;
}
 
// Driver code
 
let head = new Node('a');
head.next = new Node('a');
head.next.next = new Node('a');
head.next.next.next = new Node('b');
head.next.next.next.next = new Node('r');
head.next.next.next.next.next = new Node('r');
 
runLengthEncode (head);
printList (head);
 
 
// This code is contributed by unknown2108
 
</script>
Output: 
a 3 b r 2

 

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