Skip to content
Related Articles

Related Articles

Improve Article

Program to check for irreducibility using Eisenstein’s Irreducibility Criterion

  • Difficulty Level : Expert
  • Last Updated : 07 Aug, 2021

Given an array arr[] consisting of N integers such that each array element arr[i] represent coefficients of a polynomial expression starting with the highest degree(A[0].X(N – 1) + A[1].X(N – 2) + … + A[N – 2].X + A[N – 1]), the task is to check if the given equation is irreducible or not by Eisenstein’s Irreducibility Criterion or not. If found to be true, then print Yes. Otherwise, print No.

Examples:

Input: arr[] = {4, 7, 21, 28}
Output: Yes
Explanation:
The given array arr[] represents the polynomial 4x3 + 7x2 + 21x + 28.
The prime number 7 satisfies the conditions of Eisenstein’s Irreducibility conditions and thus, the polynomial is irreducible.

Input: arr[] = {1, 2, 1}
Output: No

Approach: Consider F(x) = anxn + an – 1xn – 1 + … + a0. The conditions that need to be satisfied to satisfy Eisenstein’s Irreducibility Criterion are as follows:



  • There exists a prime number P such that:
    • P does not divide an.
    • P divides all other coefficients i.e., aN – 1, aN – 2, …, a0.
    • P2 does not divide a0.

Follow the steps below to solve the problem:

  • Initialize a variable, say M to -1, that stores the maximum value of A.
  • Create a vector, say prime[] that contains all prime numbers less than and equal to A.
  • Traverse through the primes array and for each current index i, do the following:
    • Check if the current prime number primes[i] satisfies all 3 conditions i.e.,
      • A[0] is not divisible by primes[i].
      • All numbers from A[1] to A[N – 1] are all divisible by primes[i].
      • A[N-1] is not divisible by primes[i].
    • If the number satisfies all three conditions, the polynomial is irreducible, therefore, print Yes. Otherwise, print No.

Below is the implementation of the above approach:

C++




// C++ program for the above approach
 
#include <bits/stdc++.h>
using namespace std;
 
// Function to to implement the sieve
// of eratosthenes
vector<int> SieveOfEratosthenes(int M)
{
    // Stores the prime numbers
    bool isPrime[M + 1];
 
    // Initialize the prime numbers
    memset(isPrime, true,
           sizeof(isPrime));
 
    for (int p = 2; p * p <= M; p++) {
 
        // If isPrime[p] is not changed,
        // then it is a prime
        if (isPrime[p] == true) {
 
            // Update all multiples of
            // p as non-prime
            for (int i = p * p;
                 i <= M; i += p) {
                isPrime[i] = false;
            }
        }
    }
 
    // Stores all prime numbers less
    // than M
    vector<int> prime;
 
    for (int i = 2; i <= M; i++) {
 
        // If the i is the prime numbers
        if (isPrime[i]) {
            prime.push_back(i);
        }
    }
 
    // Return array having the primes
    return prime;
}
 
// Function to check whether the three
// conditions of Eisenstein's
// Irreducibility criterion for prime P
bool check(int A[], int P, int N)
{
    // 1st condition
    if (A[0] % P == 0)
        return 0;
 
    // 2nd condition
    for (int i = 1; i < N; i++)
        if (A[i] % P)
            return 0;
 
    // 3rd condition
    if (A[N - 1] % (P * P) == 0)
        return 0;
 
    return 1;
}
// Function to check for Eisensteins
// Irreducubility Criterion
bool checkIrreducibilty(int A[], int N)
{
    // Stores the largest element in A
    int M = -1;
 
    // Find the maximum element in A
    for (int i = 0; i < N; i++) {
        M = max(M, A[i]);
    }
 
    // Stores all the prime numbers
    vector<int> primes
        = SieveOfEratosthenes(M + 1);
 
    // Check if any prime
    // satisfies the conditions
    for (int i = 0;
         i < primes.size(); i++) {
 
        // Function Call to check
        // for the three conditions
        if (check(A, primes[i], N)) {
            return 1;
        }
    }
    return 0;
}
 
// Driver Code
int main()
{
    int A[] = { 4, 7, 21, 28 };
    int N = sizeof(A) / sizeof(A[0]);
    cout << checkIrreducibilty(A, N);
 
    return 0;
}

Java




// Java program for the above approach
import java.util.*;
 
class GFG{
 
// Function to to implement the sieve
// of eratosthenes
static ArrayList<Integer> SieveOfEratosthenes(int M)
{
     
    // Stores the prime numbers
    boolean []isPrime = new boolean[M + 1];
 
    // Initialize the prime numbers
    for(int i = 0; i < M + 1; i++)
        isPrime[i] = true;
 
    for(int p = 2; p * p <= M; p++)
    {
         
        // If isPrime[p] is not changed,
        // then it is a prime
        if (isPrime[p] == true)
        {
             
            // Update all multiples of
            // p as non-prime
            for(int i = p * p; i <= M; i += p)
            {
                isPrime[i] = false;
            }
        }
    }
 
    // Stores all prime numbers less
    // than M
    ArrayList<Integer> prime = new ArrayList<Integer>();
 
    for(int i = 2; i <= M; i++)
    {
         
        // If the i is the prime numbers
        if (isPrime[i])
        {
            prime.add(i);
        }
    }
 
    // Return array having the primes
    return prime;
}
 
// Function to check whether the three
// conditions of Eisenstein's
// Irreducibility criterion for prime P
static int check(int []A, int P, int N)
{
     
    // 1st condition
    if (A[0] % P == 0)
        return 0;
 
    // 2nd condition
    for(int i = 1; i < N; i++)
        if (A[i] % P != 0)
            return 0;
 
    // 3rd condition
    if (A[N - 1] % (P * P) == 0)
        return 0;
 
    return 1;
}
 
// Function to check for Eisensteins
// Irreducubility Criterion
static int checkIrreducibilty(int []A, int N)
{
     
    // Stores the largest element in A
    int M = -1;
 
    // Find the maximum element in A
    for(int i = 0; i < N; i++)
    {
        M = Math.max(M, A[i]);
    }
 
    // Stores all the prime numbers
    ArrayList<Integer> primes = SieveOfEratosthenes(M + 1);
 
    // Check if any prime
    // satisfies the conditions
    for(int i = 0; i < primes.size(); i++)
    {
         
        // Function Call to check
        // for the three conditions
        if (check(A, primes.get(i), N) == 1)
        {
            return 1;
        }
    }
    return 0;
}
 
// Driver Code
public static void main(String[] args)
{
    int []A = { 4, 7, 21, 28 };
    int N = A.length;
     
    System.out.print(checkIrreducibilty(A, N));
}
}
 
// This code is contributed by avijitmondal1998

Python3




# Python3 program for the above approach
 
# Function to to implement the sieve
# of eratosthenes
def SieveOfEratosthenes(M):
   
    # Stores the prime numbers
    isPrime = [True]*(M + 1)
 
    for p in range(2, M + 1):
        if p * p > M:
            break
 
        # If isPrime[p] is not changed,
        # then it is a prime
        if (isPrime[p] == True):
 
            # Update all multiples of
            # p as non-prime
            for i in range(p * p, M + 1, p):
                isPrime[i] = False
 
    # Stores all prime numbers less
    # than M
    prime = []
 
    for i in range(2, M + 1):
       
        # If the i is the prime numbers
        if (isPrime[i]):
            prime.append(i)
 
    # Return array having the primes
    return prime
 
# Function to check whether the three
# conditions of Eisenstein's
# Irreducibility criterion for prime P
def check(A, P, N):
    # 1st condition
    if (A[0] % P == 0):
        return 0
 
    # 2nd condition
    for i in range(1,N):
        if (A[i] % P):
            return 0
 
    # 3rd condition
    if (A[N - 1] % (P * P) == 0):
        return 0
 
    return 1
# Function to check for Eisensteins
# Irreducubility Criterion
def checkIrreducibilty(A, N):
    # Stores the largest element in A
    M = -1
 
    # Find the maximum element in A
    for i in range(N):
        M = max(M, A[i])
 
    # Stores all the prime numbers
    primes = SieveOfEratosthenes(M + 1)
 
    # Check if any prime
    # satisfies the conditions
    for i in range(len(primes)):
 
        # Function Call to check
        # for the three conditions
        if (check(A, primes[i], N)):
            return 1
    return 0
 
# Driver Code
if __name__ == '__main__':
    A = [4, 7, 21, 28]
    N = len(A)
    print (checkIrreducibilty(A, N))
 
# This code is contributed by mohit kumar 29.

C#




// C# program for the above approach
using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
 
class GFG{
  
// Function to to implement the sieve
// of eratosthenes
static List<int> SieveOfEratosthenes(int M)
{
     
    // Stores the prime numbers
    bool []isPrime = new bool[M + 1];
 
    // Initialize the prime numbers
    for(int i = 0; i < M + 1; i++)
        isPrime[i] = true;
 
    for(int p = 2; p * p <= M; p++)
    {
         
        // If isPrime[p] is not changed,
        // then it is a prime
        if (isPrime[p] == true)
        {
             
            // Update all multiples of
            // p as non-prime
            for(int i = p * p; i <= M; i += p)
            {
                isPrime[i] = false;
            }
        }
    }
 
    // Stores all prime numbers less
    // than M
    List<int> prime = new List<int>();
 
    for(int i = 2; i <= M; i++)
    {
         
        // If the i is the prime numbers
        if (isPrime[i])
        {
            prime.Add(i);
        }
    }
 
    // Return array having the primes
    return prime;
}
 
// Function to check whether the three
// conditions of Eisenstein's
// Irreducibility criterion for prime P
static int check(int []A, int P, int N)
{
     
    // 1st condition
    if (A[0] % P == 0)
        return 0;
 
    // 2nd condition
    for(int i = 1; i < N; i++)
        if (A[i] % P !=0)
            return 0;
 
    // 3rd condition
    if (A[N - 1] % (P * P) == 0)
        return 0;
 
    return 1;
}
 
// Function to check for Eisensteins
// Irreducubility Criterion
static int checkIrreducibilty(int []A, int N)
{
     
    // Stores the largest element in A
    int M = -1;
 
    // Find the maximum element in A
    for(int i = 0; i < N; i++)
    {
        M = Math.Max(M, A[i]);
    }
 
    // Stores all the prime numbers
    List<int> primes = SieveOfEratosthenes(M + 1);
 
    // Check if any prime
    // satisfies the conditions
    for(int i = 0; i < primes.Count; i++)
    {
         
        // Function Call to check
        // for the three conditions
        if (check(A, primes[i], N) == 1)
        {
            return 1;
        }
    }
    return 0;
}
 
// Driver Code
public static void Main()
{
    int []A = { 4, 7, 21, 28 };
    int N = A.Length;
     
    Console.Write(checkIrreducibilty(A, N));
}
}
 
// This code is contributed by SURENDRA_GANGWAR

Javascript




<script>
 
// JavaScript program for the above approach
 
// Function to to implement the sieve
// of eratosthenes
function SieveOfEratosthenes(M)
{
    // Stores the prime numbers
    let isPrime = new Array(M + 1).fill(true);
 
    for (let p = 2; p * p <= M; p++) {
 
        // If isPrime[p] is not changed,
        // then it is a prime
        if (isPrime[p] == true) {
 
            // Update all multiples of
            // p as non-prime
            for (let i = p * p;
                 i <= M; i += p) {
                isPrime[i] = false;
            }
        }
    }
 
    // Stores all prime numbers less
    // than M
    let prime = [];
 
    for (let i = 2; i <= M; i++) {
 
        // If the i is the prime numbers
        if (isPrime[i]) {
            prime.push(i);
        }
    }
 
    // Return array having the primes
    return prime;
}
 
// Function to check whether the three
// conditions of Eisenstein's
// Irreducibility criterion for prime P
function check(A, P, N)
{
    // 1st condition
    if (A[0] % P == 0)
        return 0;
 
    // 2nd condition
    for (let i = 1; i < N; i++)
        if (A[i] % P)
            return 0;
 
    // 3rd condition
    if (A[N - 1] % (P * P) == 0)
        return 0;
 
    return 1;
}
// Function to check for Eisensteins
// Irreducubility Criterion
function checkIrreducibilty(A, N)
{
    // Stores the largest element in A
    let M = -1;
 
    // Find the maximum element in A
    for (let i = 0; i < N; i++) {
        M = Math.max(M, A[i]);
    }
 
    // Stores all the prime numbers
    let primes
        = SieveOfEratosthenes(M + 1);
 
    // Check if any prime
    // satisfies the conditions
    for (let i = 0;
         i < primes.length; i++) {
 
        // Function Call to check
        // for the three conditions
        if (check(A, primes[i], N)) {
            return 1;
        }
    }
    return 0;
}
 
// Driver Code
    let A = [ 4, 7, 21, 28 ];
    let N = A.length;
    document.write(checkIrreducibilty(A, N));
 
</script>
Output: 
1

 

Time Complexity: O(M + N*P), where M is the maximum element in the array and P is the number of primes less than N
Auxiliary Space: O(P)

Attention reader! Don’t stop learning now. Get hold of all the important DSA concepts with the DSA Self Paced Course at a student-friendly price and become industry ready.  To complete your preparation from learning a language to DS Algo and many more,  please refer Complete Interview Preparation Course.

In case you wish to attend live classes with experts, please refer DSA Live Classes for Working Professionals and Competitive Programming Live for Students.




My Personal Notes arrow_drop_up
Recommended Articles
Page :