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Program for SSTF disk scheduling algorithm
  • Difficulty Level : Basic
  • Last Updated : 21 Apr, 2021

Prerequisite – Disk scheduling algorithms 
Given an array of disk track numbers and initial head position, our task is to find the total number of seek operations done to access all the requested tracks if Shortest Seek Time First (SSTF) is a disk scheduling algorithm is used.

Shortest Seek Time First (SSTF) – 
Basic idea is the tracks which are closer to current disk head position should be serviced first in order to minimise the seek operations.

Advantages of Shortest Seek Time First (SSTF) – 

  1. Better performance than FCFS scheduling algorithm. 
  2. It provides better throughput. 
  3. This algorithm is used in Batch Processing system where throughput is more important. 
  4. It has less average response and waiting time. 

Disadvantages of Shortest Seek Time First (SSTF) – 

  1. Starvation is possible for some requests as it favours easy to reach request and ignores the far away processes. 
  2. Their is lack of predictability because of high variance of response time. 
  3. Switching direction slows things down. 

Algorithm – 



  1. Let Request array represents an array storing indexes of tracks that have been requested. ‘head’ is the position of disk head. 
  2. Find the positive distance of all tracks in the request array from head. 
  3. Find a track from requested array which has not been accessed/serviced yet and has minimum distance from head. 
  4. Increment the total seek count with this distance. 
  5. Currently serviced track position now becomes the new head position. 
  6. Go to step 2 until all tracks in request array have not been serviced. 
     

Example – 
Request sequence = {176, 79, 34, 60, 92, 11, 41, 114} 
Initial head position = 50 

The following chart shows the sequence in which requested tracks are serviced using SSTF.
 

Therefore, total seek count is calculates as: 

= (50-41)+(41-34)+(34-11)+(60-11)+(79-60)+(92-79)+(114-92)+(176-114)
= 204 

Implementation – 
Implementation of SSTF is given below. Note that we have made a node class having 2 members. ‘distance’ is used to store the distance between head and the track position. ‘accessed’ is a boolean variable which tells whether the track has been accessed/serviced before by disk head or not. 

C++




// C++ program for implementation of
// SSTF disk scheduling
#include <bits/stdc++.h>
using namespace std;
 
// Calculates difference of each 
// track number with the head position
void calculatedifference(int request[], int head,
                         int diff[][2], int n)
{
    for(int i = 0; i < n; i++)
    {
        diff[i][0] = abs(head - request[i]);
    }
}
 
// Find unaccessed track which is
// at minimum distance from head
int findMIN(int diff[][2], int n)
{
    int index = -1;
    int minimum = 1e9;
   
    for(int i = 0; i < n; i++)
    {
        if (!diff[i][1] && minimum > diff[i][0])
        {
            minimum = diff[i][0];
            index = i;
        }
    }
    return index;
}
 
void shortestSeekTimeFirst(int request[],
                           int head, int n)
{
    if (n == 0)
    {
        return;
    }
     
    // Create array of objects of class node   
    int diff[n][2] = { { 0, 0 } };
     
    // Count total number of seek operation  
    int seekcount = 0;
     
    // Stores sequence in which disk access is done
    int seeksequence[n + 1] = {0};
     
    for(int i = 0; i < n; i++)
    {
        seeksequence[i] = head;
        calculatedifference(request, head, diff, n);
        int index = findMIN(diff, n);
        diff[index][1] = 1;
         
        // Increase the total count
        seekcount += diff[index][0];
         
        // Accessed track is now new head
        head = request[index];
    }
    seeksequence[n] = head;
     
    cout << "Total number of seek operations = "
         << seekcount << endl;
    cout << "Seek sequence is : " << "\n";
     
    // Print the sequence
    for(int i = 0; i <= n; i++)
    {
        cout << seeksequence[i] << "\n";
    }
}
 
// Driver code
int main()
{
    int n = 8;
    int proc[n] = { 176, 79, 34, 60, 92, 11, 41, 114 };
     
    shortestSeekTimeFirst(proc, 50, n);
     
    return 0;
}
 
// This code is contributed by manish19je0495

Java




// Java program for implementation of
// SSTF disk scheduling
class node {
     
    // represent difference between
    // head position and track number
    int distance = 0;
     
    // true if track has been accessed
    boolean accessed = false;
}
 
public class SSTF {
     
    // Calculates difference of each
    // track number with the head position
    public static void calculateDifference(int queue[],
                                        int head, node diff[])
                                         
    {
        for (int i = 0; i < diff.length; i++)
            diff[i].distance = Math.abs(queue[i] - head);
    }
 
    // find unaccessed track
    // which is at minimum distance from head
    public static int findMin(node diff[])
    {
        int index = -1, minimum = Integer.MAX_VALUE;
 
        for (int i = 0; i < diff.length; i++) {
            if (!diff[i].accessed && minimum > diff[i].distance) {
                 
                minimum = diff[i].distance;
                index = i;
            }
        }
        return index;
    }
 
    public static void shortestSeekTimeFirst(int request[],
                                                     int head)
                                                      
    {
        if (request.length == 0)
            return;
             
        // create array of objects of class node   
        node diff[] = new node[request.length];
         
        // initialize array
        for (int i = 0; i < diff.length; i++)
         
            diff[i] = new node();
         
        // count total number of seek operation   
        int seek_count = 0;
         
        // stores sequence in which disk access is done
        int[] seek_sequence = new int[request.length + 1];
         
        for (int i = 0; i < request.length; i++) {
             
            seek_sequence[i] = head;
            calculateDifference(request, head, diff);
             
            int index = findMin(diff);
             
            diff[index].accessed = true;
             
            // increase the total count
            seek_count += diff[index].distance;
             
            // accessed track is now new head
            head = request[index];
        }
         
        // for last accessed track
        seek_sequence[seek_sequence.length - 1] = head;
         
        System.out.println("Total number of seek operations = "
                                                     + seek_count);
                                                      
        System.out.println("Seek Sequence is");
         
        // print the sequence
        for (int i = 0; i < seek_sequence.length; i++)
            System.out.println(seek_sequence[i]);
    }
 
    public static void main(String[] args)
    {
        // request array
        int arr[] = { 176, 79, 34, 60, 92, 11, 41, 114 };
        shortestSeekTimeFirst(arr, 50);
    }
}

Python3




# Python3 program for implementation of
# SSTF disk scheduling
 
# Calculates difference of each
# track number with the head position
def calculateDifference(queue, head, diff):
    for i in range(len(diff)):
        diff[i][0] = abs(queue[i] - head)
     
# find unaccessed track which is
# at minimum distance from head
def findMin(diff):
 
    index = -1
    minimum = 999999999
 
    for i in range(len(diff)):
        if (not diff[i][1] and
                minimum > diff[i][0]):
            minimum = diff[i][0]
            index = i
    return index
     
def shortestSeekTimeFirst(request, head):            
        if (len(request) == 0):
            return
         
        l = len(request)
        diff = [0] * l
         
        # initialize array
        for i in range(l):
            diff[i] = [0, 0]
         
        # count total number of seek operation    
        seek_count = 0
         
        # stores sequence in which disk
        # access is done
        seek_sequence = [0] * (l + 1)
         
        for i in range(l):
            seek_sequence[i] = head
            calculateDifference(request, head, diff)
            index = findMin(diff)
             
            diff[index][1] = True
             
            # increase the total count
            seek_count += diff[index][0]
             
            # accessed track is now new head
            head = request[index]
     
        # for last accessed track
        seek_sequence[len(seek_sequence) - 1] = head
         
        print("Total number of seek operations =",
                                       seek_count)
                                                         
        print("Seek Sequence is")
         
        # print the sequence
        for i in range(l + 1):
            print(seek_sequence[i])
     
# Driver code
if __name__ =="__main__":
     
    # request array
    proc = [176, 79, 34, 60,
            92, 11, 41, 114]
    shortestSeekTimeFirst(proc, 50)
     
# This code is contributed by
# Shubham Singh(SHUBHAMSINGH10)

C#




// C# program for implementation of
// SSTF disk scheduling
using System;
     
public class node
{
     
    // represent difference between
    // head position and track number
    public int distance = 0;
     
    // true if track has been accessed
    public Boolean accessed = false;
}
 
public class SSTF
{
     
    // Calculates difference of each
    // track number with the head position
    public static void calculateDifference(int []queue,
                                        int head, node []diff)
                                         
    {
        for (int i = 0; i < diff.Length; i++)
            diff[i].distance = Math.Abs(queue[i] - head);
    }
 
    // find unaccessed track
    // which is at minimum distance from head
    public static int findMin(node []diff)
    {
        int index = -1, minimum = int.MaxValue;
 
        for (int i = 0; i < diff.Length; i++)
        {
            if (!diff[i].accessed && minimum > diff[i].distance)
            {
                 
                minimum = diff[i].distance;
                index = i;
            }
        }
        return index;
    }
 
    public static void shortestSeekTimeFirst(int []request,
                                                    int head)
    {
        if (request.Length == 0)
            return;
             
        // create array of objects of class node
        node []diff = new node[request.Length];
         
        // initialize array
        for (int i = 0; i < diff.Length; i++)
         
            diff[i] = new node();
         
        // count total number of seek operation
        int seek_count = 0;
         
        // stores sequence in which disk access is done
        int[] seek_sequence = new int[request.Length + 1];
         
        for (int i = 0; i < request.Length; i++)
        {
             
            seek_sequence[i] = head;
            calculateDifference(request, head, diff);
             
            int index = findMin(diff);
             
            diff[index].accessed = true;
             
            // increase the total count
            seek_count += diff[index].distance;
             
            // accessed track is now new head
            head = request[index];
        }
         
        // for last accessed track
        seek_sequence[seek_sequence.Length - 1] = head;
         
        Console.WriteLine("Total number of seek operations = "
                                                    + seek_count);
                                                     
        Console.WriteLine("Seek Sequence is");
         
        // print the sequence
        for (int i = 0; i < seek_sequence.Length; i++)
            Console.WriteLine(seek_sequence[i]);
    }
 
    // Driver code
    public static void Main(String[] args)
    {
        // request array
        int []arr = { 176, 79, 34, 60, 92, 11, 41, 114 };
        shortestSeekTimeFirst(arr, 50);
    }
}
 
// This code contributed by Rajput-Ji

Output: 

Total number of seek operations = 204
Seek Sequence is
50
41
34
11
60
79
92
114
176 

 

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