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Print path from root to a given node in a binary tree

  • Difficulty Level : Medium
  • Last Updated : 01 Jul, 2021

Given a binary tree with distinct nodes(no two nodes have the same have data values). The problem is to print the path from root to a given node x. If node x is not present then print “No Path”.

Examples: 

Input :          1
               /   \
              2     3
             / \   /  \
            4   5  6   7

               x = 5

Output : 1->2->5

Approach: Create a recursive function that traverses the different path in the binary tree to find the required node x. If node x is present then it returns true and accumulates the path nodes in some array arr[]. Else it returns false.
Following are the cases during the traversal: 

  1. If root = NULL, return false.
  2. push the root’s data into arr[].
  3. if root’s data = x, return true.
  4. if node x is present in root’s left or right subtree, return true.
  5. Else remove root’s data value from arr[] and return false.

This recursive function can be accessed from other function to check whether node x is present or not and if it is present, then the path nodes can be accessed from arr[]. You can define arr[] globally or pass its reference to the recursive function. 

C++




// C++ implementation to print the path from root
// to a given node in a binary tree
#include <bits/stdc++.h>
using namespace std;
 
// structure of a node of binary tree
struct Node
{
    int data;
    Node *left, *right;
};
 
/* Helper function that allocates a new node with the
   given data and NULL left and right pointers. */
struct Node* getNode(int data)
{
    struct Node *newNode = new Node;
    newNode->data = data;
    newNode->left = newNode->right = NULL;
    return newNode;
}
 
// Returns true if there is a path from root
// to the given node. It also populates
// 'arr' with the given path
bool hasPath(Node *root, vector<int>& arr, int x)
{
    // if root is NULL
    // there is no path
    if (!root)
        return false;
     
    // push the node's value in 'arr'
    arr.push_back(root->data);   
     
    // if it is the required node
    // return true
    if (root->data == x)   
        return true;
     
    // else check whether the required node lies
    // in the left subtree or right subtree of
    // the current node
    if (hasPath(root->left, arr, x) ||
        hasPath(root->right, arr, x))
        return true;
     
    // required node does not lie either in the
    // left or right subtree of the current node
    // Thus, remove current node's value from
    // 'arr'and then return false   
    arr.pop_back();
    return false;           
}
 
// function to print the path from root to the
// given node if the node lies in the binary tree
void printPath(Node *root, int x)
{
    // vector to store the path
    vector<int> arr;
     
    // if required node 'x' is present
    // then print the path
    if (hasPath(root, arr, x))
    {
        for (int i=0; i<arr.size()-1; i++)   
            cout << arr[i] << "->";
        cout << arr[arr.size() - 1];   
    }
     
    // 'x' is not present in the binary tree
    else
        cout << "No Path";
}
 
// Driver program to test above
int main()
{
    // binary tree formation
    struct Node *root = getNode(1);
    root->left = getNode(2);
    root->right = getNode(3);
    root->left->left = getNode(4);
    root->left->right = getNode(5);
    root->right->left = getNode(6);
    root->right->right = getNode(7);
         
    int x = 5;
    printPath(root, x);
    return 0;
}

Java




// Java implementation to print the path from root
// to a given node in a binary tree
import java.util.ArrayList;
public class PrintPath {
 
    // Returns true if there is a path from root
    // to the given node. It also populates 
    // 'arr' with the given path
    public static boolean hasPath(Node root, ArrayList<Integer> arr, int x)
    {
        // if root is NULL
        // there is no path
        if (root==null)
            return false;
       
        // push the node's value in 'arr'
        arr.add(root.data);    
       
        // if it is the required node
        // return true
        if (root.data == x)    
            return true;
       
        // else check whether the required node lies
        // in the left subtree or right subtree of 
        // the current node
        if (hasPath(root.left, arr, x) ||
            hasPath(root.right, arr, x))
            return true;
       
        // required node does not lie either in the 
        // left or right subtree of the current node
        // Thus, remove current node's value from 
        // 'arr'and then return false    
        arr.remove(arr.size()-1);
        return false;            
    }
 
    // function to print the path from root to the
    // given node if the node lies in the binary tree
    public static void printPath(Node root, int x)
    {
        // ArrayList to store the path
        ArrayList<Integer> arr=new ArrayList<>();
     
        // if required node 'x' is present
        // then print the path
        if (hasPath(root, arr, x))
        {
            for (int i=0; i<arr.size()-1; i++)    
                System.out.print(arr.get(i)+"->");
            System.out.print(arr.get(arr.size() - 1));   
        }
       
        // 'x' is not present in the binary tree 
        else
            System.out.print("No Path");
    }
 
    public static void main(String args[]) {
        Node root=new Node(1);
        root.left = new Node(2);
        root.right = new Node(3);
        root.left.left = new Node(4);
        root.left.right = new Node(5);
        root.right.left = new Node(6);
        root.right.right = new Node(7);
        int x=5;
        printPath(root, x);
    }
}
 
// A node of binary tree
class Node
{
    int data;
    Node left, right;
    Node(int data)
    {
        this.data=data;
        left=right=null;
    }
};
//This code is contributed by Gaurav Tiwari

Python3




# Python3 implementation to print the path from
# root to a given node in a binary tree
 
# Helper Class that allocates a new node
# with the given data and None left and
# right pointers.
class getNode:
    def __init__(self, data):
        self.data = data
        self.left = self.right = None
 
# Returns true if there is a path from
# root to the given node. It also
# populates 'arr' with the given path
def hasPath(root, arr, x):
     
    # if root is None there is no path
    if (not root):
        return False
     
    # push the node's value in 'arr'
    arr.append(root.data)    
     
    # if it is the required node
    # return true
    if (root.data == x):    
        return True
     
    # else check whether the required node
    # lies in the left subtree or right
    # subtree of the current node
    if (hasPath(root.left, arr, x) or
        hasPath(root.right, arr, x)):
        return True
     
    # required node does not lie either in
    # the left or right subtree of the current
    # node. Thus, remove current node's value 
    # from 'arr'and then return false    
    arr.pop(-1)
    return False
 
# function to print the path from root to
# the given node if the node lies in
# the binary tree
def printPath(root, x):
     
    # vector to store the path
    arr = []
     
    # if required node 'x' is present
    # then print the path
    if (hasPath(root, arr, x)):
        for i in range(len(arr) - 1):
            print(arr[i], end = "->")
        print(arr[len(arr) - 1])
     
    # 'x' is not present in the
    # binary tree
    else:
        print("No Path")
 
# Driver Code
if __name__ == '__main__':
     
    # binary tree formation
    root = getNode(1)
    root.left = getNode(2)
    root.right = getNode(3)
    root.left.left = getNode(4)
    root.left.right = getNode(5)
    root.right.left = getNode(6)
    root.right.right = getNode(7)
         
    x = 5
    printPath(root, x)
     
# This code is contributed by PranchalK

C#




// C# implementation to print the path from root
// to a given node in a binary tree
using System;
using System.Collections;
using System.Collections.Generic;
 
class PrintPath
{
     
// A node of binary tree
public class Node
{
    public int data;
    public Node left, right;
    public Node(int data)
    {
        this.data = data;
        left = right = null;
    }
}
 
    // Returns true if there is a path from root
    // to the given node. It also populates
    // 'arr' with the given path
    public static Boolean hasPath(Node root,
                        List<int> arr, int x)
    {
        // if root is NULL
        // there is no path
        if (root == null)
            return false;
         
        // push the node's value in 'arr'
        arr.Add(root.data);    
         
        // if it is the required node
        // return true
        if (root.data == x)    
            return true;
         
        // else check whether the required node lies
        // in the left subtree or right subtree of
        // the current node
        if (hasPath(root.left, arr, x) ||
            hasPath(root.right, arr, x))
            return true;
         
        // required node does not lie either in the
        // left or right subtree of the current node
        // Thus, remove current node's value from
        // 'arr'and then return false    
        arr.RemoveAt(arr.Count - 1);
        return false;            
    }
 
    // function to print the path from root to the
    // given node if the node lies in the binary tree
    public static void printPath(Node root, int x)
    {
        // List to store the path
        List<int> arr = new List<int>();
     
        // if required node 'x' is present
        // then print the path
        if (hasPath(root, arr, x))
        {
            for (int i = 0; i < arr.Count - 1; i++)    
                Console.Write(arr[i]+"->");
            Console.Write(arr[arr.Count - 1]);
        }
         
        // 'x' is not present in the binary tree
        else
            Console.Write("No Path");
    }
 
    // Driver code
    public static void Main(String []args)
    {
         
        Node root = new Node(1);
        root.left = new Node(2);
        root.right = new Node(3);
        root.left.left = new Node(4);
        root.left.right = new Node(5);
        root.right.left = new Node(6);
        root.right.right = new Node(7);
        int x=5;
         
        printPath(root, x);
    }
}
 
// This code is contributed by Arnab Kundu

Javascript




<script>
 
// Javascript implementation to print
// the path from root to a given node
// in a binary tree
class Node
{
    constructor(data)
    {
        this.left = null;
        this.right = null;
        this.data = data;
    }
}
 
// Returns true if there is a path from root
// to the given node. It also populates 
// 'arr' with the given path
function hasPath(root, arr, x)
{
     
    // If root is NULL
    // there is no path
    if (root == null)
        return false;
     
    // Push the node's value in 'arr'
    arr.push(root.data);    
     
    // If it is the required node
    // return true
    if (root.data == x)    
        return true;
     
    // Else check whether the required node lies
    // in the left subtree or right subtree of 
    // the current node
    if (hasPath(root.left, arr, x) ||
        hasPath(root.right, arr, x))
        return true;
     
    // Required node does not lie either in the 
    // left or right subtree of the current node
    // Thus, remove current node's value from 
    // 'arr'and then return false    
    arr.pop();
    return false;            
}
 
// Function to print the path from root to the
// given node if the node lies in the binary tree
function printPath(root, x)
{
     
    // ArrayList to store the path
    let arr = [];
   
    // If required node 'x' is present
    // then print the path
    if (hasPath(root, arr, x))
    {
        for(let i = 0; i < arr.length - 1; i++)    
            document.write(arr[i] + "->");
        document.write(arr[arr.length - 1]);   
    }
     
    // 'x' is not present in the binary tree 
    else
        document.write("No Path");
}
 
// Driver code
let root = new Node(1);
root.left = new Node(2);
root.right = new Node(3);
root.left.left = new Node(4);
root.left.right = new Node(5);
root.right.left = new Node(6);
root.right.right = new Node(7);
 
let x = 5;
printPath(root, x);
 
// This code is contributed by divyeshrabadiya07
 
</script>

Output: 



1->2->5

Time complexity: O(n) in worst case, where n is the number of nodes in the binary tree.

This article is contributed by Ayush Jauhari. If you like GeeksforGeeks and would like to contribute, you can also write an article using write.geeksforgeeks.org or mail your article to review-team@geeksforgeeks.org. See your article appearing on the GeeksforGeeks main page and help other Geeks.
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