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Print a matrix in a spiral form starting from a point

  • Difficulty Level : Expert
  • Last Updated : 20 Apr, 2021

Given a matrix of size n*m, and a point P(c, r). Print the matrix in a spiral form(clockwise) starting from the point P.
Examples : 
 

Input : mat[][] = {{1 2 3},
                   {4 5 6},
                   {7 8 9}}
        Point P = (0, 2)
Output : 3 6 5 2 9 8 7 4 1
The starting point is top left which
is 3.

 

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This problem is mainly an extension of print a matrix in spiral form.
 

C++




// C++ program to print a matrix in spiral
// form.
#include <iostream>
using namespace std;
 
const int MAX = 100;
 
void printSpiral(int mat[][MAX], int r, int c)
{
 
    int i, a = 0, b = 2;
 
    int low_row = (0 > a) ? 0 : a;
    int low_column = (0 > b) ? 0 : b - 1;
    int high_row = ((a + 1) >= r) ? r - 1 : a + 1;
    int high_column = ((b + 1) >= c) ? c - 1 : b + 1;
 
    while ((low_row > 0 - r && low_column > 0 - c)) {
 
        for (i = low_column + 1; i <= high_column &&
                         i < c && low_row >= 0; ++i)
            cout << mat[low_row][i] << " ";
        low_row -= 1;
 
        for (i = low_row + 2; i <= high_row && i < r &&
                                   high_column < c; ++i)
            cout << mat[i][high_column] << " ";
        high_column += 1;
 
        for (i = high_column - 2; i >= low_column &&
                               i >= 0 && high_row < r; --i)
            cout << mat[high_row][i] << " ";
        high_row += 1;
 
        for (i = high_row - 2; i > low_row && i >= 0
                                   && low_column >= 0; --i)
            cout << mat[i][low_column] << " ";
        low_column -= 1;
    }
    cout << endl;
}
 
// Driver code
int main()
{
    int mat[][MAX] = { { 1, 2, 3 }, { 4, 5, 6 }, { 7, 8, 9 } };
    int r = 3, c = 3;
 
    printSpiral(mat, r, c);
}

Java




// Java program to print a
// matrix in spiral form
import java.io.*;
 
class GFG {
  
static void printSpiral(int [][]mat, int r, int c)
{
    int i, a = 0, b = 2;
 
    int low_row = (0 > a) ? 0 : a;
    int low_column = (0 > b) ? 0 : b - 1;
    int high_row = ((a + 1) >= r) ? r - 1 : a + 1;
    int high_column = ((b + 1) >= c) ? c - 1 : b + 1;
 
    while ((low_row > 0 - r && low_column > 0 - c))
    {
        for (i = low_column + 1; i <= high_column &&
                         i < c && low_row >= 0; ++i)
            System.out.print (mat[low_row][i] + " ");
        low_row -= 1;
 
        for (i = low_row + 2; i <= high_row && i < r &&
                                  high_column < c; ++i)
            System.out.print(mat[i][high_column] + " ");
        high_column += 1;
 
        for (i = high_column - 2; i >= low_column &&
                        i >= 0 && high_row < r; --i)
            System.out.print(mat[high_row][i] + " ");
        high_row += 1;
 
        for (i = high_row - 2; i > low_row && i >= 0
                            && low_column >= 0; --i)
            System.out.print(mat[i][low_column] +" ");
        low_column -= 1;
    }
    System.out.println();
}
 
// Driver code
    static public void main (String[] args)
    {
        int [][]mat = {{1, 2, 3},
                       {4, 5, 6},
                       {7, 8, 9}};
        int r = 3, c = 3;
 
        // Function calling
        printSpiral(mat, r, c);
    }
}
 
// This code is contributed by vt_m.

Python 3




# Python3 program to print a matrix
# in spiral form.
MAX = 100
 
def printSpiral(mat, r, c):
 
    a = 0
    b = 2
 
    low_row = 0 if (0 > a) else a
    low_column = 0 if (0 > b) else b - 1
    high_row = r-1 if ((a + 1) >= r) else a + 1
    high_column = c-1 if ((b + 1) >= c) else b + 1
 
    while ((low_row > 0 - r and low_column > 0 - c)):
 
        i = low_column + 1
        while (i <= high_column and
               i < c and low_row >= 0):
            print( mat[low_row][i], end = " ")
            i += 1
        low_row -= 1
 
        i = low_row + 2
        while (i <= high_row and
               i < r and high_column < c):
            print(mat[i][high_column], end = " ")
            i += 1
        high_column += 1
 
        i = high_column - 2
        while (i >= low_column and
               i >= 0 and high_row < r):
            print(mat[high_row][i], end = " ")
            i -= 1
        high_row += 1
 
        i = high_row - 2
        while (i > low_row and
               i >= 0 and low_column >= 0):
            print(mat[i][low_column], end = " ")
            i -= 1
        low_column -= 1
     
    print()
 
# Driver code
if __name__ == "__main__":
     
    mat = [[ 1, 2, 3 ],
           [ 4, 5, 6 ],
           [ 7, 8, 9 ]]
    r = 3
    c = 3
    printSpiral(mat, r, c)
 
# This code is contributed by ita_c

C#




// C# program to print a
// matrix in spiral form
using System;
 
class GFG {
 
static void printSpiral(int [,]mat, int r, int c)
{
    int i, a = 0, b = 2;
 
    int low_row = (0 > a) ? 0 : a;
    int low_column = (0 > b) ? 0 : b - 1;
    int high_row = ((a + 1) >= r) ? r - 1 : a + 1;
    int high_column = ((b + 1) >= c) ? c - 1 : b + 1;
 
    while ((low_row > 0 - r && low_column > 0 - c))
    {
        for (i = low_column + 1; i <= high_column &&
                         i < c && low_row >= 0; ++i)
            Console.Write (mat[low_row,i] + " ");
        low_row -= 1;
 
        for (i = low_row + 2; i <= high_row && i < r &&
                                  high_column < c; ++i)
            Console.Write(mat[i,high_column] + " ");
        high_column += 1;
 
        for (i = high_column - 2; i >= low_column &&
                        i >= 0 && high_row < r; --i)
            Console.Write(mat[high_row,i] + " ");
        high_row += 1;
 
        for (i = high_row - 2; i > low_row && i >= 0
                            && low_column >= 0; --i)
            Console.Write(mat[i,low_column] +" ");
        low_column -= 1;
    }
    Console.WriteLine();
}
 
    // Driver code
    static public void Main ()
    {
        int [,]mat = {{1, 2, 3},
                      {4, 5, 6},
                      {7, 8, 9}};
        int r = 3, c = 3;
 
        // Function calling
        printSpiral(mat, r, c);
    }
}
 
// This code is contributed by vt_m.

PHP




<?php
// PHP program to print a
// matrix in spiral form.
$MAX = 100;
 
function printSpiral($mat,
                     $r, $c)
{
    global $MAX;
    $i; $a = 0; $b = 2;
 
    $low_row = (0 > $a) ?
                0 : $a;
    $low_column = (0 > $b) ?
                   0 : $b - 1;
    $high_row = (($a + 1) >= $r) ?
                  $r - 1 : $a + 1;
    $high_column = (($b + 1) >= $c) ?
                     $c - 1 : $b + 1;
 
    while (($low_row > 0 - $r &&
            $low_column > 0 - $c))
    {
 
        for ($i = $low_column + 1;
             $i <= $high_column &&
             $i < $c && $low_row >= 0; ++$i)
            echo $mat[$low_row][$i], " ";
        $low_row -= 1;
 
        for ($i = $low_row + 2;
             $i <= $high_row && $i < $r &&
             $high_column < $c; ++$i)
        echo $mat[$i][$high_column] , " ";
        $high_column += 1;
 
        for ($i = $high_column - 2;
             $i >= $low_column &&
             $i >= 0 && $high_row < $r; --$i)
            echo $mat[$high_row][$i] , " ";
        $high_row += 1;
 
        for ($i = $high_row - 2;
             $i > $low_row && $i >= 0 &&
             $low_column >= 0; --$i)
            echo $mat[$i][$low_column] , " ";
        $low_column -= 1;
    }
    echo "\n";
}
 
// Driver code
$mat = array(array(1, 2, 3),
             array(4, 5, 6),
             array(7, 8, 9));
$r = 3; $c = 3;
 
printSpiral($mat, $r, $c);
 
// This code is contributed by aj_36
?>

Javascript




<script>
// Javascript program to print a matrix in spiral
// form.
 
const MAX = 100;
 
function printSpiral(mat, r, c)
{
 
    let i, a = 0, b = 2;
 
    let low_row = (0 > a) ? 0 : a;
    let low_column = (0 > b) ? 0 : b - 1;
    let high_row = ((a + 1) >= r) ? r - 1 : a + 1;
    let high_column = ((b + 1) >= c) ? c - 1 : b + 1;
 
    while ((low_row > 0 - r && low_column > 0 - c)) {
 
        for (i = low_column + 1; i <= high_column &&
                         i < c && low_row >= 0; ++i)
            document.write(mat[low_row][i] + " ");
        low_row -= 1;
 
        for (i = low_row + 2; i <= high_row && i < r &&
                                   high_column < c; ++i)
            document.write(mat[i][high_column] + " ");
        high_column += 1;
 
        for (i = high_column - 2; i >= low_column &&
                               i >= 0 && high_row < r; --i)
            document.write(mat[high_row][i] + " ");
        high_row += 1;
 
        for (i = high_row - 2; i > low_row && i >= 0
                                   && low_column >= 0; --i)
            document.write(mat[i][low_column] + " ");
        low_column -= 1;
    }
    document.write("<br>");
}
 
// Driver code
    let mat = [ [ 1, 2, 3 ], [ 4, 5, 6 ], [ 7, 8, 9 ] ];
    let r = 3, c = 3;
 
    printSpiral(mat, r, c);
 
// This code is contributed by rishavmahato348.
</script>

Output: 
 

3 6 5 2 9 8 7 4 1

This article is contributed by Harsh Khatore. If you like GeeksforGeeks and would like to contribute, you can also write an article using contribute.geeksforgeeks.org or mail your article to contribute@geeksforgeeks.org. See your article appearing on the GeeksforGeeks main page and help other Geeks.
Please write comments if you find anything incorrect, or you want to share more information about the topic discussed above.
 




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