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Print Binary Tree in 2-Dimensions

  • Difficulty Level : Medium
  • Last Updated : 14 Dec, 2021

Given a Binary Tree, print it in two dimension.
Examples: 
 

Input : Pointer to root of below tree
             1
            /  \
           2    3 
          / \   / \
         4   5  6  7 

Output :
                    7

          3

                    6

1

                    5

          2

                    4

We strongly recommend you to minimize your browser and try this yourself first.
If we take a closer look at the pattern, we can notice following. 
1) Rightmost node is printed in first line and leftmost node is printed in last line. 
2) Space count increases by a fixed amount at every level.
So we do a reverse inorder traversal (right – root – left) and print tree nodes. We increase space by a fixed amount at every level.
Below is the implementation. 
 

C++




// C++ Program to print binary tree in 2D
#include<bits/stdc++.h>
 
using namespace std;
#define COUNT 10
 
// A binary tree node
class Node
{
    public:
    int data;
    Node* left, *right;
     
    /* Constructor that allocates a new node with the
    given data and NULL left and right pointers. */
    Node(int data){
        this->data = data;
        this->left = NULL;
        this->right = NULL;
    }
};
 
// Function to print binary tree in 2D
// It does reverse inorder traversal
void print2DUtil(Node *root, int space)
{
    // Base case
    if (root == NULL)
        return;
 
    // Increase distance between levels
    space += COUNT;
 
    // Process right child first
    print2DUtil(root->right, space);
 
    // Print current node after space
    // count
    cout<<endl;
    for (int i = COUNT; i < space; i++)
        cout<<" ";
    cout<<root->data<<"\n";
 
    // Process left child
    print2DUtil(root->left, space);
}
 
// Wrapper over print2DUtil()
void print2D(Node *root)
{
    // Pass initial space count as 0
    print2DUtil(root, 0);
}
 
// Driver code
int main()
{
    Node *root = new Node(1);
    root->left = new Node(2);
    root->right = new Node(3);
 
    root->left->left = new Node(4);
    root->left->right = new Node(5);
    root->right->left = new Node(6);
    root->right->right = new Node(7);
 
    root->left->left->left = new Node(8);
    root->left->left->right = new Node(9);
    root->left->right->left = new Node(10);
    root->left->right->right = new Node(11);
    root->right->left->left = new Node(12);
    root->right->left->right = new Node(13);
    root->right->right->left = new Node(14);
    root->right->right->right = new Node(15);
     
    print2D(root);
 
    return 0;
}
 
// This code is contributed by rathbhupendra

C




// Program to print binary tree in 2D
#include<stdio.h>
#include<malloc.h>
#define COUNT 10
 
// A binary tree node
struct Node
{
    int data;
    struct Node* left, *right;
};
 
// Helper function to allocates a new node
struct Node* newNode(int data)
{
    struct Node* node = malloc(sizeof(struct Node));
    node->data = data;
    node->left = node->right = NULL;
    return node;
}
 
// Function to print binary tree in 2D
// It does reverse inorder traversal
void print2DUtil(struct Node *root, int space)
{
    // Base case
    if (root == NULL)
        return;
 
    // Increase distance between levels
    space += COUNT;
 
    // Process right child first
    print2DUtil(root->right, space);
 
    // Print current node after space
    // count
    printf("\n");
    for (int i = COUNT; i < space; i++)
        printf(" ");
    printf("%d\n", root->data);
 
    // Process left child
    print2DUtil(root->left, space);
}
 
// Wrapper over print2DUtil()
void print2D(struct Node *root)
{
   // Pass initial space count as 0
   print2DUtil(root, 0);
}
 
// Driver program to test above functions
int main()
{
    struct Node *root   = newNode(1);
    root->left   = newNode(2);
    root->right  = newNode(3);
 
    root->left->left  = newNode(4);
    root->left->right = newNode(5);
    root->right->left  = newNode(6);
    root->right->right = newNode(7);
 
    root->left->left->left  = newNode(8);
    root->left->left->right  = newNode(9);
    root->left->right->left  = newNode(10);
    root->left->right->right  = newNode(11);
    root->right->left->left  = newNode(12);
    root->right->left->right  = newNode(13);
    root->right->right->left  = newNode(14);
    root->right->right->right  = newNode(15);
     
    print2D(root);
 
    return 0;
}

Java




// Java Program to print binary tree in 2D
class GFG
{
     
static final int COUNT = 10;
 
// A binary tree node
static class Node
{
    int data;
    Node left, right;
     
    /* Constructor that allocates a new node with the
    given data and null left and right pointers. */
    Node(int data)
    {
        this.data = data;
        this.left = null;
        this.right = null;
    }
};
 
// Function to print binary tree in 2D
// It does reverse inorder traversal
static void print2DUtil(Node root, int space)
{
    // Base case
    if (root == null)
        return;
 
    // Increase distance between levels
    space += COUNT;
 
    // Process right child first
    print2DUtil(root.right, space);
 
    // Print current node after space
    // count
    System.out.print("\n");
    for (int i = COUNT; i < space; i++)
        System.out.print(" ");
    System.out.print(root.data + "\n");
 
    // Process left child
    print2DUtil(root.left, space);
}
 
// Wrapper over print2DUtil()
static void print2D(Node root)
{
    // Pass initial space count as 0
    print2DUtil(root, 0);
}
 
// Driver code
public static void main(String args[])
{
    Node root = new Node(1);
    root.left = new Node(2);
    root.right = new Node(3);
 
    root.left.left = new Node(4);
    root.left.right = new Node(5);
    root.right.left = new Node(6);
    root.right.right = new Node(7);
 
    root.left.left.left = new Node(8);
    root.left.left.right = new Node(9);
    root.left.right.left = new Node(10);
    root.left.right.right = new Node(11);
    root.right.left.left = new Node(12);
    root.right.left.right = new Node(13);
    root.right.right.left = new Node(14);
    root.right.right.right = new Node(15);
     
    print2D(root);
}
}
 
// This code is contributed by Arnab Kundu

Python3




# Python3 Program to print binary tree in 2D
COUNT = [10]
 
# Binary Tree Node
""" utility that allocates a newNode
with the given key """
class newNode:
 
    # Construct to create a newNode
    def __init__(self, key):
        self.data = key
        self.left = None
        self.right = None
 
# Function to print binary tree in 2D
# It does reverse inorder traversal
def print2DUtil(root, space) :
 
    # Base case
    if (root == None) :
        return
 
    # Increase distance between levels
    space += COUNT[0]
 
    # Process right child first
    print2DUtil(root.right, space)
 
    # Print current node after space
    # count
    print()
    for i in range(COUNT[0], space):
        print(end = " ")
    print(root.data)
 
    # Process left child
    print2DUtil(root.left, space)
 
# Wrapper over print2DUtil()
def print2D(root) :
     
    # space=[0]
    # Pass initial space count as 0
    print2DUtil(root, 0)
 
# Driver Code
if __name__ == '__main__':
 
    root = newNode(1)
    root.left = newNode(2)
    root.right = newNode(3)
 
    root.left.left = newNode(4)
    root.left.right = newNode(5)
    root.right.left = newNode(6)
    root.right.right = newNode(7)
 
    root.left.left.left = newNode(8)
    root.left.left.right = newNode(9)
    root.left.right.left = newNode(10)
    root.left.right.right = newNode(11)
    root.right.left.left = newNode(12)
    root.right.left.right = newNode(13)
    root.right.right.left = newNode(14)
    root.right.right.right = newNode(15)
     
    print2D(root)
 
# This code is contributed by
# Shubham Singh(SHUBHAMSINGH10)

C#




// C# Program to print binary tree in 2D
using System;
 
class GFG
{
     
static readonly int COUNT = 10;
 
// A binary tree node
public class Node
{
    public int data;
    public Node left, right;
     
    /* Constructor that allocates a new node with the
    given data and null left and right pointers. */
    public Node(int data)
    {
        this.data = data;
        this.left = null;
        this.right = null;
    }
};
 
// Function to print binary tree in 2D
// It does reverse inorder traversal
static void print2DUtil(Node root, int space)
{
    // Base case
    if (root == null)
        return;
 
    // Increase distance between levels
    space += COUNT;
 
    // Process right child first
    print2DUtil(root.right, space);
 
    // Print current node after space
    // count
    Console.Write("\n");
    for (int i = COUNT; i < space; i++)
        Console.Write(" ");
    Console.Write(root.data + "\n");
 
    // Process left child
    print2DUtil(root.left, space);
}
 
// Wrapper over print2DUtil()
static void print2D(Node root)
{
    // Pass initial space count as 0
    print2DUtil(root, 0);
}
 
// Driver code
public static void Main(String []args)
{
    Node root = new Node(1);
    root.left = new Node(2);
    root.right = new Node(3);
 
    root.left.left = new Node(4);
    root.left.right = new Node(5);
    root.right.left = new Node(6);
    root.right.right = new Node(7);
 
    root.left.left.left = new Node(8);
    root.left.left.right = new Node(9);
    root.left.right.left = new Node(10);
    root.left.right.right = new Node(11);
    root.right.left.left = new Node(12);
    root.right.left.right = new Node(13);
    root.right.right.left = new Node(14);
    root.right.right.right = new Node(15);
     
    print2D(root);
}
}
 
// This code is contributed by Princi Singh

Javascript




<script>
 
// JavaScript Program to print binary tree in 2D
 
let COUNT = 10;
 
// A binary tree node
class Node
{
    constructor(data)
    {
        this.data = data;
        this.left = null;
        this.right = null;
    }
}
 
// Function to print binary tree in 2D
// It does reverse inorder traversal
function print2DUtil(root,space)
{
    // Base case
    if (root == null)
        return;
   
    // Increase distance between levels
    space += COUNT;
   
    // Process right child first
    print2DUtil(root.right, space);
   
    // Print current node after space
    // count
    document.write("<br>");
    for (let i = COUNT; i < space; i++)
        document.write("  ");
    document.write(root.data + "\n");
   
    // Process left child
    print2DUtil(root.left, space);
}
 
// Wrapper over print2DUtil()
function print2D(root)
{
    // Pass initial space count as 0
    print2DUtil(root, 0);
}
 
// Driver code
let root = new Node(1);
root.left = new Node(2);
root.right = new Node(3);
 
root.left.left = new Node(4);
root.left.right = new Node(5);
root.right.left = new Node(6);
root.right.right = new Node(7);
 
root.left.left.left = new Node(8);
root.left.left.right = new Node(9);
root.left.right.left = new Node(10);
root.left.right.right = new Node(11);
root.right.left.left = new Node(12);
root.right.left.right = new Node(13);
root.right.right.left = new Node(14);
root.right.right.right = new Node(15);
 
print2D(root);
 
 
 
// This code is contributed by patel2127
 
</script>

Output: 

                              15

                    7

                              14

          3

                              13

                    6

                              12

1

                              11

                    5

                              10

          2

                              9

                    4

                              8

Another solution using level order traversal:

Java




import java.util.LinkedList;
 
public class Tree1 {
 
    public static void main(String[] args) {
 
        Tree1.Node root = new Tree1.Node(1);
        Tree1.Node temp = null;
        temp = new Tree1.Node(2);
        root.left=temp;
        temp = new Tree1.Node(3);
        root.right=temp;
 
        temp = new Tree1.Node(4);
        root.left.left = temp;
        temp=new Tree1.Node(5);
        root.left.right =temp;
        temp=new Tree1.Node(6);
        root.right.left =temp;
        temp=new Tree1.Node(7);
        root.right.right = temp;
 
        temp = new Tree1.Node(8);
        root.left.left.left = temp;
        temp = new Tree1.Node(9);
        root.left.left.right = temp;
        temp=new Tree1.Node(10);
        root.left.right.left = temp;
        temp=new Tree1.Node(11);
        root.left.right.right = temp;
        temp=new Tree1.Node(12);
        root.right.left.left = temp;
        temp=new Tree1.Node(13);
        root.right.left.right = temp;
        temp=new Tree1.Node(14);
        root.right.right.left = temp;
        temp=new Tree1.Node(15);
        root.right.right.right = temp;
 
        printBinaryTree(root);
 
    }
 
public static class Node{
 
    public Node(int data){
        this.data = data;
    }
    int data;
    Node left;
    Node right;
}
 
    public static void printBinaryTree(Node root) {
        LinkedList<Node> treeLevel = new LinkedList<Node>();
        treeLevel.add(root);
        LinkedList<Node> temp = new LinkedList<Node>();
        int counter = 0;
        int height = heightOfTree(root)-1;
        //System.out.println(height);
        double numberOfElements = (Math.pow(2 , (height + 1)) - 1);
        //System.out.println(numberOfElements);
        while (counter <= height) {
            Node removed = treeLevel.removeFirst();
            if (temp.isEmpty()) {
                printSpace(numberOfElements / Math.pow(2 , counter + 1), removed);
            } else {
                printSpace(numberOfElements / Math.pow(2 , counter), removed);
            }
            if (removed == null) {
                temp.add(null);
                temp.add(null);
            } else {
                temp.add(removed.left);
                temp.add(removed.right);
            }
 
            if (treeLevel.isEmpty()) {
                System.out.println("");
                System.out.println("");
                treeLevel = temp;
                temp = new LinkedList<>();
                counter++;
            }
 
        }
    }
 
public static void printSpace(double n, Node removed){
    for(;n>0;n--) {
            System.out.print("\t");
    }
    if(removed == null){
        System.out.print(" ");
    }
    else {
        System.out.print(removed.data);
    }
}
 
public static int heightOfTree(Node root){
    if(root==null){
        return 0;
    }
     return 1+ Math.max(heightOfTree(root.left),heightOfTree(root.right));
}
 
}
Output
                                1

                2                                3

        4                5                6                7

    8        9        10        11        12        13        14        15

 Output:

This article is contributed by Aditya Goel. If you like GeeksforGeeks and would like to contribute, you can also write an article and mail your article to review-team@geeksforgeeks.org. See your article appearing on the GeeksforGeeks main page and help other Geeks.
Please write comments if you find anything incorrect, or you want to share more information about the topic discussed above
 


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