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Print Binary Tree in 2-Dimensions
  • Difficulty Level : Medium
  • Last Updated : 11 Feb, 2020

Given a Binary Tree, print it in two dimension.

Examples:

Input : Pointer to root of below tree
             1
            /  \
           2    3 
          / \   / \
         4   5  6  7 

Output :
                    7

          3

                    6

1

                    5

          2

                    4

We strongly recommend you to minimize your browser and try this yourself first.

If we take a closer look at the pattern, we can notice following.
1) Rightmost node is printed in first line and leftmost node is printed in last line.
2) Space count increases by a fixed amount at every level.

So we do a reverse inorder traversal (right – root – left) and print tree nodes. We increase space by a fixed amount at every level.



Below is the implementation.

C++




// C++ Program to print binary tree in 2D 
#include<bits/stdc++.h> 
  
using namespace std; 
#define COUNT 10 
  
// A binary tree node 
class Node 
    public:
    int data; 
    Node* left, *right; 
      
    /* Constructor that allocates a new node with the 
    given data and NULL left and right pointers. */
    Node(int data){
        this->data = data;
        this->left = NULL;
        this->right = NULL;
    }
}; 
  
// Function to print binary tree in 2D 
// It does reverse inorder traversal 
void print2DUtil(Node *root, int space) 
    // Base case 
    if (root == NULL) 
        return
  
    // Increase distance between levels 
    space += COUNT; 
  
    // Process right child first 
    print2DUtil(root->right, space); 
  
    // Print current node after space 
    // count 
    cout<<endl; 
    for (int i = COUNT; i < space; i++) 
        cout<<" "
    cout<<root->data<<"\n"
  
    // Process left child 
    print2DUtil(root->left, space); 
  
// Wrapper over print2DUtil() 
void print2D(Node *root) 
    // Pass initial space count as 0 
    print2DUtil(root, 0); 
  
// Driver code 
int main() 
    Node *root = new Node(1); 
    root->left = new Node(2); 
    root->right = new Node(3); 
  
    root->left->left = new Node(4); 
    root->left->right = new Node(5); 
    root->right->left = new Node(6); 
    root->right->right = new Node(7); 
  
    root->left->left->left = new Node(8); 
    root->left->left->right = new Node(9); 
    root->left->right->left = new Node(10); 
    root->left->right->right = new Node(11); 
    root->right->left->left = new Node(12); 
    root->right->left->right = new Node(13); 
    root->right->right->left = new Node(14); 
    root->right->right->right = new Node(15); 
      
    print2D(root); 
  
    return 0; 
  
// This code is contributed by rathbhupendra

C




// Program to print binary tree in 2D
#include<stdio.h>
#include<malloc.h>
#define COUNT 10
  
// A binary tree node
struct Node
{
    int data;
    struct Node* left, *right;
};
  
// Helper function to allocates a new node
struct Node* newNode(int data)
{
    struct Node* node = malloc(sizeof(struct Node));
    node->data = data;
    node->left = node->right = NULL;
    return node;
}
  
// Function to print binary tree in 2D
// It does reverse inorder traversal
void print2DUtil(struct Node *root, int space)
{
    // Base case
    if (root == NULL)
        return;
  
    // Increase distance between levels
    space += COUNT;
  
    // Process right child first
    print2DUtil(root->right, space);
  
    // Print current node after space
    // count
    printf("\n");
    for (int i = COUNT; i < space; i++)
        printf(" ");
    printf("%d\n", root->data);
  
    // Process left child
    print2DUtil(root->left, space);
}
  
// Wrapper over print2DUtil()
void print2D(struct Node *root)
{
   // Pass initial space count as 0
   print2DUtil(root, 0);
}
  
// Driver program to test above functions
int main()
    struct Node *root   = newNode(1);
    root->left   = newNode(2);
    root->right  = newNode(3);
  
    root->left->left  = newNode(4);
    root->left->right = newNode(5);
    root->right->left  = newNode(6);
    root->right->right = newNode(7);
  
    root->left->left->left  = newNode(8);
    root->left->left->right  = newNode(9);
    root->left->right->left  = newNode(10);
    root->left->right->right  = newNode(11);
    root->right->left->left  = newNode(12);
    root->right->left->right  = newNode(13);
    root->right->right->left  = newNode(14);
    root->right->right->right  = newNode(15); 
      
    print2D(root);
  
    return 0;
}

Java




// Java Program to print binary tree in 2D 
class GFG
{
      
static final int COUNT = 10
  
// A binary tree node 
static class Node 
    int data; 
    Node left, right; 
      
    /* Constructor that allocates a new node with the 
    given data and null left and right pointers. */
    Node(int data)
    
        this.data = data; 
        this.left = null
        this.right = null
    
}; 
  
// Function to print binary tree in 2D 
// It does reverse inorder traversal 
static void print2DUtil(Node root, int space) 
    // Base case 
    if (root == null
        return
  
    // Increase distance between levels 
    space += COUNT; 
  
    // Process right child first 
    print2DUtil(root.right, space); 
  
    // Print current node after space 
    // count 
    System.out.print("\n"); 
    for (int i = COUNT; i < space; i++) 
        System.out.print(" "); 
    System.out.print(root.data + "\n"); 
  
    // Process left child 
    print2DUtil(root.left, space); 
  
// Wrapper over print2DUtil() 
static void print2D(Node root) 
    // Pass initial space count as 0 
    print2DUtil(root, 0); 
  
// Driver code 
public static void main(String args[]) 
    Node root = new Node(1); 
    root.left = new Node(2); 
    root.right = new Node(3); 
  
    root.left.left = new Node(4); 
    root.left.right = new Node(5); 
    root.right.left = new Node(6); 
    root.right.right = new Node(7); 
  
    root.left.left.left = new Node(8); 
    root.left.left.right = new Node(9); 
    root.left.right.left = new Node(10); 
    root.left.right.right = new Node(11); 
    root.right.left.left = new Node(12); 
    root.right.left.right = new Node(13); 
    root.right.right.left = new Node(14); 
    root.right.right.right = new Node(15); 
      
    print2D(root); 
}
  
// This code is contributed by Arnab Kundu

Python3




# Python3 Program to print binary tree in 2D 
COUNT = [10
  
# Binary Tree Node 
""" utility that allocates a newNode 
with the given key """
class newNode: 
  
    # Construct to create a newNode 
    def __init__(self, key): 
        self.data = key
        self.left = None
        self.right = None
  
# Function to print binary tree in 2D 
# It does reverse inorder traversal 
def print2DUtil(root, space) :
  
    # Base case 
    if (root == None) :
        return
  
    # Increase distance between levels 
    space += COUNT[0]
  
    # Process right child first 
    print2DUtil(root.right, space) 
  
    # Print current node after space 
    # count 
    print() 
    for i in range(COUNT[0], space):
        print(end = " "
    print(root.data) 
  
    # Process left child 
    print2DUtil(root.left, space) 
  
# Wrapper over print2DUtil() 
def print2D(root) :
      
    # space=[0]
    # Pass initial space count as 0 
    print2DUtil(root, 0
  
# Driver Code 
if __name__ == '__main__':
  
    root = newNode(1
    root.left = newNode(2
    root.right = newNode(3
  
    root.left.left = newNode(4
    root.left.right = newNode(5
    root.right.left = newNode(6
    root.right.right = newNode(7
  
    root.left.left.left = newNode(8
    root.left.left.right = newNode(9
    root.left.right.left = newNode(10
    root.left.right.right = newNode(11
    root.right.left.left = newNode(12
    root.right.left.right = newNode(13
    root.right.right.left = newNode(14
    root.right.right.right = newNode(15
      
    print2D(root)
  
# This code is contributed by
# Shubham Singh(SHUBHAMSINGH10)

C#




// C# Program to print binary tree in 2D 
using System;
  
class GFG 
      
static readonly int COUNT = 10; 
  
// A binary tree node 
public class Node 
    public int data; 
    public Node left, right; 
      
    /* Constructor that allocates a new node with the 
    given data and null left and right pointers. */
    public Node(int data) 
    
        this.data = data; 
        this.left = null
        this.right = null
    
}; 
  
// Function to print binary tree in 2D 
// It does reverse inorder traversal 
static void print2DUtil(Node root, int space) 
    // Base case 
    if (root == null
        return
  
    // Increase distance between levels 
    space += COUNT; 
  
    // Process right child first 
    print2DUtil(root.right, space); 
  
    // Print current node after space 
    // count 
    Console.Write("\n"); 
    for (int i = COUNT; i < space; i++) 
        Console.Write(" "); 
    Console.Write(root.data + "\n"); 
  
    // Process left child 
    print2DUtil(root.left, space); 
  
// Wrapper over print2DUtil() 
static void print2D(Node root) 
    // Pass initial space count as 0 
    print2DUtil(root, 0); 
  
// Driver code 
public static void Main(String []args) 
    Node root = new Node(1); 
    root.left = new Node(2); 
    root.right = new Node(3); 
  
    root.left.left = new Node(4); 
    root.left.right = new Node(5); 
    root.right.left = new Node(6); 
    root.right.right = new Node(7); 
  
    root.left.left.left = new Node(8); 
    root.left.left.right = new Node(9); 
    root.left.right.left = new Node(10); 
    root.left.right.right = new Node(11); 
    root.right.left.left = new Node(12); 
    root.right.left.right = new Node(13); 
    root.right.right.left = new Node(14); 
    root.right.right.right = new Node(15); 
      
    print2D(root); 
  
// This code is contributed by Princi Singh

Output :


                              15

                    7

                              14

          3

                              13

                    6

                              12

1

                              11

                    5

                              10

          2

                              9

                    4

                              8

This article is contributed by Aditya Goel. If you like GeeksforGeeks and would like to contribute, you can also write an article and mail your article to contribute@geeksforgeeks.org. See your article appearing on the GeeksforGeeks main page and help other Geeks.

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