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Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)

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Polycystic Ovary Syndrome is a women’s disorder because of the endocrine disorder. As the name suggests, numerous cysts (i.e., fluid accumulated in the sacs) are formed over the ovary. Because of the cyst formation the male hormone i.e., androgen is present in very low amounts but females suffering from PCOS, they formed and secrete androgen in large amounts. Due to the high level of androgen, other female hormones are imbalanced.

What is PCOS?


Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

When an egg matured, it is released from the ovary and comes into the fallopian tube. In the tube, if the egg comes in contact with the sperm, the egg is fertilized, and if not then it came out from the vagina with blood. This is known as period, and this cycle occurs every month known as the menstrual cycle. If the androgen level is high in the female body, it also affects the menstrual cycle. PCOS leads to immature egg and cyst formation starting over the ovary and cysts secrete more androgen. PCOS is also one of the main reasons for female infertility. 

Causes of PCOS

Till date, the main causative agent of PCOS is unknown. Some research shows that genetics and heredity also play a role in developing PCOS. There are some other factors as well that play a role in causing PCOS in female are:

  • High level of Androgen: In normal conditions a small amount of androgen i.e., male hormone is present. But due to PCOS, the cyst is formed over the ovary which secretes a large amount of androgen, which leads to irregular ovulation and this also causes cyst formation. High level of androgen leads to hair growth and acne.
  • Insulin Resistance: If the female is insulin resistant, it triggered the ovaries to make and secrete large amounts of androgen. High level of androgen causes irregular menstrual cycle and other symptoms of Polycystic ovary syndrome. Insulin resistance also leads to a high level of glucose in the blood, diabetes, and obesity.
  • Low-Grade Inflammation: Due to any chronic inflammation or injury, our immune systems attack because of which WBCs make some substances, this is known as Low-grade inflammation. Research shows that if this low-grade inflammation stays for a long period of time they also developed cysts over the ovaries, resulting in PCOS.
  • Heredity: Some research shows that there are certain genes that may involve which lead to PCOS.

Symptoms of PCOS

PCOS Symptoms

Symptoms of PCOS

PCOS shows various symptoms, those are:

  1. Irregular periods: Due to high levels of androgen, cause an irregular menstrual cycle. This cause missing periods or periods with heavy flow.
  2. Acne: Due to high levels of the male hormone, female skin becomes more oily than usual, which leads to skin breakouts. Due to this, acne occurred over the face, chest, and back.
  3. Abnormal Hair Growth: Due to PCOS excessive hair growth occurred over the area of chest, arms, and abdomen.
  4. Skin Darkening: Skin starts to darken due to PCOS. The area around the neck, groin, and under the breast. 
  5. Baldness: Hairs on the head start falling or become thinner.
  6. Infertility: PCOS is one of the main causes of infertility. Due to an irregular menstrual cycle, or lack of menstrual cycle.
  7. Obesity: Due to insulin resistance, women put on weight.
  8. Headaches: Due to PCOS hormones imbalance in females, which do headaches in some cases.

Diagnosis of PCOS

Women having PCOS sometimes don’t show cysts over the ovaries, and in some cases no polycystic ovaries are present. The doctor observes some symptoms and asks about your medical history. To confirm doctor performs various tests to diagnose PCOS, those tests are:

Physical Exam

Doctors do some physical exams like doctor test your pelvic bone, and they also see your reproductive organ from both outer and inside properly. Check the skin patching or hair growth, and acne.

Blood Test

Doctors also run some blood tests to check the levels of androgen and other hormones in the body. The doctor also checks the blood glucose levels, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels.


Ultrasound is used to get a clear picture of the ovaries, it is easy to see if there are any cysts present over the ovaries or not. Ultrasound also helps to see the thickening of the endometrium of the uterus.

PCOS Treatment

Treatment of PCOS

Treatments for PCOS

Treatment of PCOS decided on some factors, those are:

  • Age
  • Symptoms
  • Health of patient
  • Whether the patient is pregnant or not
  • In the future, they want to conceive or not.

If they want to Conceive in the Future:

  1. Medication: Your healthcare provides certain drugs which help to improve the menstrual cycle and increase ovulation. Some medication and some injections are present which helps to increase the frequency of ovulation.
  2. Ovary Drilling: It is a surgical process in which those tissues from the ovary are removed which are the main source of androgen.
  3. IVF (In Vitro Fertilization): In the lab, your egg is fertilized with sperm, and later on embryo is implanted in the uterus.

If they don’t want to Conceive in the Future:

  1. Healthy Lifestyle: By maintaining a healthy lifestyle, a healthy diet, and losing weight help in a positive way.
  2. Medications: Doctors prescribe different drugs and medications which help to regulate the androgen levels. This also helps in the regulation of acne, and hair growth occurred because of PCOS.
  3. Hormonal Birth Control: By controlling your birth control, positively helps in regulating the menstrual cycle, and it also improves acne and excess hair growth due to PCOS. In the market, different pills and IUDs are present through which you can control hormones.
  4. Insulin-sensitizing Medicine: Certain drugs are present that help in controlling the level of insulin. Maintaining insulin also helps in improving the menstrual cycle. 

Complications of PCOS

PCOS involved the following complications:

  • Infertility in women suffering from PCOS
  • Miscarriage and premature birth of an infant
  • Type 2 Diabetes
  • Depression and anxiety
  • Endometrial Cancer
  • Increase risk of cardiovascular disorders.
  • Sleep Apnea
  • High Blood Pressure

Prevention of PCOS

There is no proper evidence for any particular way which helps in preventing PCOS. But still, some steps can opt to decrease the symptoms of PCOS

  • Maintaining the healthy lifestyle
  • Eating healthy food
  • Regular exercise.
  • Managing weight.

Pregnancy and PCOS

Due to PCOS hormones of females are imbalanced. PCOS affects the menstrual cycle by affecting hormones. Because of the high level of androgen frequency of the ovulation decrease which leads to an irregular menstrual cycle. PCOS makes it hard to get pregnant with PCOS. 

  • It also increases complications in pregnancy. 
  • Premature delivery of the infant.

Pregnancy with PCOS comes with many complications. Though, females with PCOS can follow proper treatment which helps in improving ovulation. Losing weight or decreasing the sugar level in the blood also helps to maintain a healthy pregnancy.

Please Note: These measures and Symptoms may vary and are just to provide educational information about the disease and are not standard practices. We advise you to consult a healthcare professional, before trying anything at home.

FAQs on Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

Question 1: What is PCOS?


Polycystic ovary syndrome is a female hormonal disbalance in reproductive age. In this condition high level of male hormone secrets.

Question 2: How to cure PCOS permanently?


PCOS not be cured completely. Symptoms of PCOS can be reduced with the help of treatment and maintaining the healthy lifestyle.

Question 3: What are the first sign of PCOS?


Normally symptoms of PCOS start appearing in the late teen or in the 20s. Symptoms of PCOS may vary from mild or severe. 

  •  Irregular menstrual cycle
  • Obesity
  • Acne

Question 4: How to lose weight with PCOS?


Following are the various method by which you can reduce your weight:

  1. Reducing carb intake
  2. Taking enough protein
  3. Limiting the added sugars
  4. Reducing Inflammation
  5. Regular Exercise

Question 5: What is PCOD and PCOS?


PCOS is a syndrome in which a high level of androgen leads to no proper ovulation and an irregular menstrual cycle. In PCOD mature eggs ovulate which leads to hormone disbalance. 

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Last Updated : 30 Jan, 2023
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