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Plant Kingdom

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Kingdom Plantae is popularly known as Plant Kingdom. The broad classification of living organisms under the system given by Whittaker (1969) wherein he suggested the Five kingdom classification viz Monera, Protista, Fungi, Animalia, and Plantae. All the plants fall into the Plantae kingdom. All organisms are multicellular eukaryotic, and autotrophic organisms. One of the main characteristics of plants is they have cell walls. The cell wall provides rigidity and structural support to the cell. 

Classification of Kingdom Plantae

Plants are differentiated into subgroups on the basis of the following criteria:

  1. Vascular System: Vascular system is present or absent for the transportation of water and minerals.
  2. Seed Formation: Seeds are present or absent in the flower, and they are either enclosed in fruit or naked.
  3. Plant Body: Well-differentiated plant body is present or not.

Here under is the overview of the classification of the plant kingdom on the basis of the above criteria




Thallophyta is chlorophyll-bearing simple, thalloid, autotrophic, and large aquatic organisms. The study of Algae is known as Phycology/Algology. The Father of Algae is F.E Fritsch and the Father of Indian Algology is M.O.P Iyengar. Volvox, Chara, and Fucus are some examples of Algae. They have a well-differentiated body.




Bryophytes are called amphibians of the plant kingdom because they require water for fertilization. The Father of Bryophytes is Hedwig, and the Father of Indian Bryophytes is Prof. Shri Ram Kashyap. Examples of Bryophytes are Funaria, Anthoceros, etc.




Pteridophytes are known as the snake in the Botanical world. They are the first primitive vascular land plant. Examples include Lycopodium, Equisetum, Azolla, etc.




Gymnosperms are naked-seeded plants. The plants are woody, Perennial, and range from tall trees to dwarf shrubs. e.g., Cycas, Pinus.




Angiosperms are highly developed and the most advanced plants in the plant kingdom. They are plants with sporophytes organized into flowers. Examples include dandelion and grasses in the vast majority of all plant foods we eat, including grains, beans, fruits, etc.

Characteristics of Kingdom Planate

The following are the characteristics of Plant Kingdom

  • These are multicellular eukaryotes.
  • They synthesize their own food and thus are called autotrophs.
  • They are non-motile.
  • Plants contain photosynthetic pigments called chlorophyll, present in the plastids.
  • They reproduce asexually by vegetative reproduction or sexually.
  • Plants have the majority of transport systems.
  • Plants store their food as starch.

Difference Between Plantae and Animalia Kingdom

  • Plants are green-colored eukaryotic cells, whereas animals also have eukaryotic cells but do not possess green pigment.
  • Plants do not have any locomotion, while animals are motile.
  • The cells of the plant kingdom have cell walls, whereas animals do not.
  • Most plants won’t show any alterations in generations, but most animals show alternation.

Also Read: Difference Between Plant and Animal Cell

Classification Theory of Plant Kingdom

In the traditional system of classification, the plant kingdom is divided into two subkingdoms- Cryptogamae and Phanerogamae.

Cryptogamae and Phanerogams

Cryptogams do not bear conspicuous reproductive structures like seeds. They are also called lower plants or seedless plants. Phanerogams have evident reproductive structures in the form of seeds. They are called seed plants. Cryptograms have three divisions- Thallophyta, Bryophyte, and Pteridophyte. Phanerogams have only one division- Spermatophyta. Thallophyta includes the simplest plants which possess undifferentiated or thallus-like forms, single-celled non-jacketed reproductive organs, and a mode of development devoid of an embryo stage. Vascular tissues are absent. Asexual reproduction by accessory spores is very common. Traditionally, Thallophyta includes three groups-algae, fungi, and bacteria. The distinction between eukaryotes and prokaryotes is not made.

FAQs on Kingdom Plantae

Q1: What are the 5 plant kingdom?


The plant kingdom includes algae, Bryophyte, Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms, and angiosperms.

Q2: How many phyla are there in the Plant Kingdom?


Plant kingdome contain 14 phyla.

Q3: What is the economic importance of Plants?


Plants provide food and also feed livestock that is then consumed itself. Moreover, plants provide the raw materials for many types of pharmaceuticals, as well as tobacco, coffee, alcohol, and other drugs.

Q4: Give two characteristics of the plant kingdom.


  1. Plants contain photosynthetic pigments called chlorophyll, present in the plastids.
  2. They reproduce asexually by vegetative reproduction or sexually.

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Last Updated : 01 Jun, 2023
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