8051 microcontroller is a 40 pin Dual Inline Package (DIP). These 40 pins serve different functions like read, write, I/O operations, interrupts etc. 8051 has four I/O ports wherein each port has 8 pins which can be configured as input or output depending upon the logic state of the pins. Therefore, 32 out of these 40 pins are dedicated to I/O ports. The rest of the pins are dedicated to VCC, GND, XTAL1, XTAL2, RST, ALE, EA’ and PSEN’.
Pin diagram of 8051 microprocessor is as given below :
Description of the Pins :
- Pin 1 to Pin 8 (Port 1) –
Pin 1 to Pin 8 are assigned to Port 1 for simple I/O operations. They can be configured as input or output pins depending on the logic control i.e. if logic zero (0) is applied to the I/O port it will act as an output pin and if logic one (1) is applied the pin will act as an input pin. These pins are also referred to as P1.0 to P1.7 (where P1 indicates that it is a pin in port 1 and the number after ‘.’ tells the pin number i.e. 0 indicates first pin of the port. So, P1.0 means first pin of port 1, P1.1 means second pin of the port 1 and so on). These pins are bidirectional pins.
- Pin 9 (RST) –
Reset pin. It is an active-high, input pin. Therefore if the RST pin is high for a minimum of 2 machine cycles, the microcontroller will reset i.e. it will close and terminate all activities. It is often referred as “power-on-reset” pin because it is used to reset the microcontroller to it’s initial values when power is on (high).
- Pin 10 to Pin 17 (Port 3) –
Pin 10 to pin 17 are port 3 pins which are also referred to as P3.0 to P3.7. These pins are similar to port 1 and can be used as universal input or output pins. These pins are bidirectional pins.
These pins also have some additional functions which are as follows:
- P3.0 (RXD) :
10th pin is RXD (serial data receive pin) which is for serial input. Through this input signal microcontroller receives data for serial communication.
- P3.1 (TXD) :
11th pin is TXD (serial data transmit pin) which is serial output pin. Through this output signal microcontroller transmits data for serial communication.
- P3.2 and P3.3 (INT0′, INT1′ ) :
12th and 13th pins are for External Hardware Interrupt 0 and Interrupt 1 respectively. When this interrupt is activated(i.e. when it is low), 8051 gets interrupted in whatever it is doing and jumps to the vector value of the interrupt (0003H for INT0 and 0013H for INT1) and starts performing Interrupt Service Routine (ISR) from that vector location.
- P3.4 and P3.5 (T0 and T1) :
14th and 15th pin are for Timer 0 and Timer 1 external input. They can be connected with 16 bit timer/counter.
- P3.6 (WR’) :
16th pin is for external memory write i.e. writing data to the external memory.
- P3.7 (RD’) :
17th pin is for external memory read i.e. reading data from external memory.
- P3.0 (RXD) :
- Pin 18 and Pin 19 (XTAL2 And XTAL1) –
These pins are connected to an external oscillator which is generally a quartz crystal oscillator. They are used to provide an external clock frequency of 4MHz to 30MHz.
- Pin 20 (GND) –
This pin is connected to the ground. It has to be provided with 0V power supply. Hence it is connected to the negative terminal of the power supply.
- Pin 21 to Pin 28 (Port 2) –
Pin 21 to pin 28 are port 2 pins also referred to as P2.0 to P2.7. When additional external memory is interfaced with the 8051 microcontroller, pins of port 2 act as higher-order address bytes. These pins are bidirectional.
- Pin 29 (PSEN) –
PSEN stands for Program Store Enable. It is output, active-low pin. This is used to read external memory. In 8031 based system where external ROM holds the program code, this pin is connected to the OE pin of the ROM.
- Pin 30 (ALE/ PROG) –
ALE stands for Address Latch Enable. It is input, active-high pin. This pin is used to distinguish between memory chips when multiple memory chips are used. It is also used to de-multiplex the multiplexed address and data signals available at port 0.
During flash programming i.e. Programming of EPROM, this pin acts as program pulse input (PROG).
- Pin 31 (EA/ VPP) –
EA stands for External Access input. It is used to enable/disable external memory interfacing. In 8051, EA is connected to Vcc as it comes with on-chip ROM to store programs. For other family members such as 8031 and 8032 in which there is no on-chip ROM, the EA pin is connected to the GND.
- Pin 32 to Pin 39 (Port 0) –
Pin 32 to pin 39 are port 0 pins also referred to as P0.0 to P0.7. They are bidirectional input/output pins. They don’t have any internal pull-ups. Hence, 10 K? pull-up registers are used as external pull-ups. Port 0 is also designated as AD0-AD7 because 8051 multiplexes address and data through port 0 to save pins.
- Pin 40 (VCC) –
This pin provides power supply voltage i.e. +5 Volts to the circuit.