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Physical Components of Computer Network

  • Last Updated : 29 Jul, 2020

Main Components of Computer Networks are :

1. Nodes :
Nodes is a term used to refer to any computing devices such as computers that send and receive network packets across the network. Two Types of nodes are :

  • End Nodes –
    These type of nodes is going to be the starting point or the end point of communication. E.g., computers, security cameras, network printers, etc.
  • Intermediary Nodes –
    These nodes are going to be in between starting point or end point of the end nodes. E.g., Switches, Bridges, Routers, cell towers, etc.

2. Media :
Also known as Link which is going to carry data from one side to other side. This link can be Wired Medium (Guided Medium) and Wireless Medium (Unguided Medium).

Examples of Wired media are :



  • Ethernet –
    These are of two types :
    • (i). Ethernet straight-through cable (used for two different devices).
    • (ii). Ethernet crossover cable (used for two same devices).

  • Fibre Optic Cable –
    In this data is transferred in the form of light waves.

  • Coaxial Cable –
    Mainly used for audio and video communications.

  • USB Cable –
    Stands for Universal Serial Bus. Mainly used to connect PC and smartphone.

Examples of Wireless media are :

  • Infrared (E.g. short range communication – TV remote control).
  • Radio (E.g. Bluetooth, Wi-Fi).
  • Microwaves (E.g. Cellular system).
  • Satellite (E.g. Long range communications – GPS).

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