# Perl | Useful Math functions

In Perl, sometimes there is a need to solve various expressions that contain some mathematical operations. These mathematical operations can be performed with the use of various inbuilt-functions.

 `#!/usr/bin/perl  ` `   `  `# Initialising some values for the  ` `# parameter of the exp function  ` `\$A` `= 0;  ` `\$B` `= 1;  ` ` `  `# Calling the exp function  ` `\$E` `= ``exp` `\$A``;  ` `\$F` `= ``exp` `\$B``;  ` `  `  `# Getting the value of "e" raised to the  ` `# power of the given parameter.  ` `print` `"\$E\n"``;  ` `print` `"\$F\n"``;  ` ` `  `# Calculating square root using sqrt()  ` `\$square_root` `= ``sqrt``(64);  ` `   `  `# Printing the result  ` `print` `"Squareroot of 64 is: \$square_root"``;  `

Some useful functions for mathematical operations in Perl are listed below:

Function Description
exp() Calculates “e” raised to the power of the real number taken as the parameter
hex() Converts the given hexadecimal number ( of base 16 ) into its equivalent decimal number ( of base 10 ).
srand() Helps rand() function to generate a constant value each time the program is run
sqrt() Used to calculate the square root of a number
oct() Converts the octal value passed to its respective decimal value
rand() Returns a random fractional number between 0 and the positive number value passed to it, or 1 if no value is specified
log() Returns the natural logarithm of value passed to it. Returns \$_ if called without passing a value
int() Returns the integer part of given value. It returns \$_ if no value provided
sin() Used to calculate sine of a VALUE or \$_ if VALUE is omitted
cos() Used to calculate cosine of a VALUE or \$_ if VALUE is omitted
atan2() Used to calculate arctangent of Y/X in the range -PI to PI.
abs() Returns the absolute value of its argument
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