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Perl | Data Types

  • Difficulty Level : Medium
  • Last Updated : 10 Aug, 2021
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Data types specify the type of data that a valid Perl variable can hold. Perl is a loosely typed language. There is no need to specify a type for the data while using in the Perl program. The Perl interpreter will choose the type based on the context of the data itself. 
 

There are 3 data types in Perl as follows: 

  1. Scalars
  2. Arrays
  3. Hashes(Associative Arrays)

1. Scalars: It is a single unit of data which can be an integer number, floating-point, a character, a string, a paragraph, or an entire web page. To know more about scalars please refer to Scalars in Perl

Example:

Perl




# Perl Program to demonstrate the
# Scalars data types
 
# An integer assignment
$age = 1;            
 
# A string
$name = "ABC";
 
# A floating point  
$salary = 21.5;    
 
# displaying result
print "Age = $age\n";
print "Name = $name\n";
print "Salary = $salary\n";

Output: 



Age = 1
Name = ABC
Salary = 21.5
  • Scalar Operations: There are many operations that can be performed on the scalar data types like addition, subtraction, multiplication, etc.

Example:

Perl




# Perl Program to demonstrate
# the Scalars operations
 
#!/usr/bin/perl
 
# Concatenates strings
$str = "GFG" . " is the best";
 
# adds two numbers    
$num = 1 + 0;
 
# multiplies two numbers            
$mul = 4 * 9;
 
# concatenates string and number            
$mix = $str . $num;            
 
# displaying result
print "str = $str\n";
print "num = $num\n";
print "mul = $mul\n";
print "mix = $mix\n";

Output: 

str = GFG is the best
num = 1
mul = 36
mix = GFG is the best1

2. Arrays: An array is a variable that stores the value of the same data type in the form of a list. To declare an array in Perl, we use ‘@’ sign in front of the variable name. 
 

@age=(10, 20, 30)

It will create an array of integers which contains the value 10, 20 and 30. To access a single element of an array, we use the ‘$’ sign. 

$age[0]

It will produce an output as 10. To know more about arrays please refer to Arrays in Perl
 

Example:

Perl




# Perl Program to demonstrate
# the Arrays data type
 
#!/usr/bin/perl
 
# creation of arrays
@ages = (33, 31, 27);            
@names = ("Geeks", "for", "Geeks");
 
# displaying result
print "\$ages[0] = $ages[0]\n";
print "\$ages[1] = $ages[1]\n";
print "\$ages[2] = $ages[2]\n";
print "\$names[0] = $names[0]\n";
print "\$names[1] = $names[1]\n";
print "\$names[2] = $names[2]\n";

Output: 

$ages[0] = 33
$ages[1] = 31
$ages[2] = 27
$names[0] = Geeks
$names[1] = for
$names[2] = Geeks

3. Hashes(Associative Arrays): It is a set of key-value pair. It is also termed as the Associative Arrays. To declare a hash in Perl, we use the ‘%’ sign. To access the particular value, we use the ‘$’ symbol which is followed by the key in braces.
 

Example:

Perl




# Perl Program to demonstrate the
# Hashes data type
 
# Hashes
%data = ('GFG', 7, 'for', 4, 'Geeks', 11);
 
#displaying result
print "\$data{'CR'} = $data{'CR'}\n";
print "\$data{'Ramos'} = $data{'Ramos'}\n";
print "\$data{'Bale'} = $data{'Bale'}\n";

Output: 

$data{'GFG'} = 7
$data{'for'} = 4
$data{'Geeks'} = 11



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