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Perl | Data Types
  • Difficulty Level : Medium
  • Last Updated : 12 Feb, 2019

Data types specify the type of data that a valid Perl variable can hold. Perl is a loosely typed language. There is no need to specify a type for the data while using in the Perl program. The Perl interpreter will choose the type based on the context of the data itself.

There are 3 data types in Perl as follows:

  1. Scalars
  2. Arrays
  3. Hashes(Associative Arrays)

1. Scalars: It is a single unit of data which can be an integer number, floating point, a character, a string, a paragraph, or an entire web page. To know more about scalars please refer to Scalars in Perl.

  • Example:




    # Perl Program to demonstrate the 
    # Scalars data types
      
    # An integer assignment
    $age = 1;             
      
    # A string 
    $name = "ABC";
      
    # A floating point   
    $salary = 21.5;     
      
    # displaying result
    print "Age = $age\n";
    print "Name = $name\n";
    print "Salary = $salary\n";

    Output:

    Age = 1
    Name = ABC
    Salary = 21.5
    
  • Scalar Operations: There are many operations which can be performed on the scalar data types like addition, subtraction, multiplication etc.

    Example:






    # Perl Program to demonstrate 
    # the Scalars operations
      
    #!/usr/bin/perl
      
    # Concatenates strings
    $str = "GFG" . " is the best";
      
    # adds two numbers     
    $num = 1 + 0; 
      
    # multiplies two numbers             
    $mul = 4 * 9; 
      
    # concatenates string and number             
    $mix = $str . $num;             
      
    # displaying result
    print "str = $str\n";
    print "num = $num\n";
    print "mul = $mul\n";
    print "mix = $mix\n";

    Output:

    str = GFG is the best
    num = 1
    mul = 36
    mix = GFG is the best1
    

2. Arrays: An array is a variable that stores the value of the same data type in the form of a list. To declare an array in Perl, we use ‘@’ sign in front of the variable name.

@age=(10, 20, 30)

It will create an array of integers which contains the value 10, 20 and 30. To access a single element of an array, we use the ‘$’ sign.

$age[0]

It will produce the output as 10. To know more about arrays please refer to Arrays in Perl

  • Example:




    # Perl Program to demonstrate 
    # the Arrays data type
      
    #!/usr/bin/perl
      
    # creation of arrays
    @ages = (33, 31, 27);             
    @names = ("Geeks", "for", "Geeks");
      
    # displaying result
    print "\$ages[0] = $ages[0]\n";
    print "\$ages[1] = $ages[1]\n";
    print "\$ages[2] = $ages[2]\n";
    print "\$names[0] = $names[0]\n";
    print "\$names[1] = $names[1]\n";
    print "\$names[2] = $names[2]\n";

    Output:

    $ages[0] = 33
    $ages[1] = 31
    $ages[2] = 27
    $names[0] = Geeks
    $names[1] = for
    $names[2] = Geeks
    

3. Hashes(Associative Arrays): It is a set of key-value pair. It is also termed as the Associative Arrays. To declare a hash in Perl, we use the ‘%’ sign. To access the particular value, we use the ‘$’ symbol which is followed by the key in braces.

  • Example:




    # Perl Program to demonstrate the
    # Hashes data type
      
    # Hashes
    %data = ('GFG', 7, 'for', 4, 'Geeks', 11);
      
    #displaying result
    print "\$data{'CR'} = $data{'CR'}\n";
    print "\$data{'Ramos'} = $data{'Ramos'}\n";
    print "\$data{'Bale'} = $data{'Bale'}\n";

    Output:

    $data{'GFG'} = 11
    $data{'for'} = 4
    $data{'Geeks'} = 11
    

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