# Performing Logarithmic Computations in R Programming – log(), log10(), log1p(), and log2() Functions

`log()` function in R Language returns the natural logarithm (base-e logarithm) of the argument passed in the parameter.

Syntax: log(x)

Parameter:
x: Specified value.

Returns: It returns the natural logarithm of the specified value, infinity for 0 and NaN for the negative value.

Example 1:

 `# R program to calculate log value  ` `print``(log(``1``))  ` `print``(log(``30``))  ` `print``(log(``0``))  ` `print``(log(``-``44``))  `

Output:

``` 0
 3.401197
 -Inf
 NaN
Warning message:
In log(-44) : NaNs produced
``` #### log(x, base = y)

The `log(x,base=y)` is an inbuilt function in R which is used to compute the logarithm of the specified value to base y, infinity for 0, and NaN for the negative value.

Syntax: log(x, base = y)

Parameters:
x and base y.

Returns: It returns the logarithm of the specified value to base y, infinity for 0, and NaN for the negative value.

Example 2:

 `# R program to calculate log value  ` `print``(log(``10``,base``=``10``))  ` `print``(log(``16``,base``=``2``))  ` `print``(log(``0``,base``=``10``))  ` `print``(log(``-``44``,base``=``4``))  `

Output:

``` 1
 4
 -Inf
 NaN
Warning message:
In print(log(-44, base = 4)) : NaNs produced
```

#### log10() Function

The `log10()` is an inbuilt function in R which is used to compute the logarithm of the specified value to base 10, infinity for 0, and NaN for the negative value.

Syntax: log10(x)

Parameters:
x: Specified values.

Returns: It returns the logarithm of the specified value to base 10,infinity for 0 and NaN for negative value.

Example 2:

 `# R program to calculate log value  ` `print``(log10(``1``))  ` `print``(log10(``10``))  ` `print``(log10(``0``))  ` `print``(log10(``-``44``))  `

Output:

``` 0
 1
 -Inf
 NaN
Warning message:
In print(log10(-44)) : NaNs produced
```

#### log1p()

The `log1p()` is an inbuilt function in R which is used to calculate accurate natural logarithm of 1+x, where x is the specified value and throws infinity for 0 and NaN for negative value.

Syntax: log1p(x)

Parameters:
x: Specified values.

Returns: It returns the accurate natural logarithm of 1+x, where x is the specified value and throws infinity for 0 and NaN for negative value.

Example:

 `# R program to illustrate  ` `# the use of log1p() method ` ` `  `# Getting the accurate natural  ` `# logarithm of 1 + x, where x is  ` `# the specified value and throws  ` `# infinity for 0 and NaN for negative value. ` `print``(log1p(``1``)) ` `print``(log1p(``10``)) ` `print``(log1p(``0``)) ` `print``(log1p(``-``44``)) `

Output:

``` 0.6931472
 2.397895
 0
 NaN
Warning message:
In log1p(-44) : NaNs produced
```

#### log2()

The `log2()` is an inbuilt function in R which is used to calculate the logarithm of x to base 2, where x is the specified value or throws infinity for 0 and NaN for negative value.

Syntax: log2(x)

Parameters:
x: Specified values.

Returns: It returns the logarithm of x to base 2, where x is the specified value or throws infinity for 0 and NaN for negative value.

Example:

 `# R program to illustrate  ` `# the use of log2() method ` ` `  `# Getting the logarithm of x  ` `# to base 2, where x is the  ` `# specified value or throws  ` `# infinity for 0 and NaN for negative value. ` `print``(log2(``1``)) ` `print``(log2(``2``)) ` `print``(log2(``0``)) ` `print``(log2(``-``44``)) `

Output:

``` 0
 1
 -Inf
 NaN
Warning message:
In print(log2(-44)) : NaNs produced
```

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