# Performing Logarithmic Computations in R Programming – log(), log10(), log1p(), and log2() Functions

** log()** function in R Language returns the natural logarithm (base-e logarithm) of the argument passed in the parameter.

Syntax:log(x)

Parameter:x:Specified value.

Returns:It returns the natural logarithm of the specified value, infinity for 0 and NaN for the negative value.

**Example 1:**

`# R program to calculate log value ` `print` `(log(` `1` `)) ` `print` `(log(` `30` `)) ` `print` `(log(` `0` `)) ` `print` `(log(` `-` `44` `)) ` |

**Output:**

[1] 0 [1] 3.401197 [1] -Inf [1] NaN Warning message: In log(-44) : NaNs produced

#### log(x, base = y)

The

is an inbuilt function in R which is used to compute the logarithm of the specified value to base y, infinity for 0, and NaN for the negative value.**log(x,base=y)**

Syntax:log(x, base = y)

Parameters:x and base y.

Returns:It returns the logarithm of the specified value to base y, infinity for 0, and NaN for the negative value.

**Example 2:**

`# R program to calculate log value ` `print` `(log(` `10` `,base` `=` `10` `)) ` `print` `(log(` `16` `,base` `=` `2` `)) ` `print` `(log(` `0` `,base` `=` `10` `)) ` `print` `(log(` `-` `44` `,base` `=` `4` `)) ` |

**Output:**

[1] 1 [1] 4 [1] -Inf [1] NaN Warning message: In print(log(-44, base = 4)) : NaNs produced

#### log10() Function

The

is an inbuilt function in R which is used to compute the logarithm of the specified value to base 10, infinity for 0, and NaN for the negative value.**log10()**

Syntax:log10(x)

Parameters:x:Specified values.

Returns:It returns the logarithm of the specified value to base 10,infinity for 0 and NaN for negative value.

**Example 2:**

`# R program to calculate log value ` `print` `(log10(` `1` `)) ` `print` `(log10(` `10` `)) ` `print` `(log10(` `0` `)) ` `print` `(log10(` `-` `44` `)) ` |

**Output:**

[1] 0 [1] 1 [1] -Inf [1] NaN Warning message: In print(log10(-44)) : NaNs produced

#### log1p()

The

is an inbuilt function in R which is used to calculate accurate natural logarithm of 1+x, where x is the specified value and throws infinity for 0 and NaN for negative value.**log1p()**

Syntax:log1p(x)

Parameters:x:Specified values.

Returns:It returns the accurate natural logarithm of 1+x, where x is the specified value and throws infinity for 0 and NaN for negative value.

**Example:**

`# R program to illustrate ` `# the use of log1p() method` ` ` `# Getting the accurate natural ` `# logarithm of 1 + x, where x is ` `# the specified value and throws ` `# infinity for 0 and NaN for negative value.` `print` `(log1p(` `1` `))` `print` `(log1p(` `10` `))` `print` `(log1p(` `0` `))` `print` `(log1p(` `-` `44` `))` |

**Output:**

[1] 0.6931472 [1] 2.397895 [1] 0 [1] NaN Warning message: In log1p(-44) : NaNs produced

#### log2()

The

is an inbuilt function in R which is used to calculate the logarithm of x to base 2, where x is the specified value or throws infinity for 0 and NaN for negative value.**log2()**

Syntax:log2(x)

Parameters:x:Specified values.

Returns:It returns the logarithm of x to base 2, where x is the specified value or throws infinity for 0 and NaN for negative value.

**Example:**

`# R program to illustrate ` `# the use of log2() method` ` ` `# Getting the logarithm of x ` `# to base 2, where x is the ` `# specified value or throws ` `# infinity for 0 and NaN for negative value.` `print` `(log2(` `1` `))` `print` `(log2(` `2` `))` `print` `(log2(` `0` `))` `print` `(log2(` `-` `44` `))` |

**Output:**

[1] 0 [1] 1 [1] -Inf [1] NaN Warning message: In print(log2(-44)) : NaNs produced