# Performing Logarithmic Computations in R Programming – log(), log10(), log1p(), and log2() Functions

• Last Updated : 05 Jun, 2020

`log()` function in R Language returns the natural logarithm (base-e logarithm) of the argument passed in the parameter.

Syntax: log(x)

Parameter:
x: Specified value.

Returns: It returns the natural logarithm of the specified value, infinity for 0 and NaN for the negative value.

Example 1:

 `# R program to calculate log value ``print``(log(``1``)) ``print``(log(``30``)) ``print``(log(``0``)) ``print``(log(``-``44``)) `

Output:

```[1] 0
[1] 3.401197
[1] -Inf
[1] NaN
Warning message:
In log(-44) : NaNs produced
```

#### log(x, base = y)

The `log(x,base=y)` is an inbuilt function in R which is used to compute the logarithm of the specified value to base y, infinity for 0, and NaN for the negative value.

Syntax: log(x, base = y)

Parameters:
x and base y.

Returns: It returns the logarithm of the specified value to base y, infinity for 0, and NaN for the negative value.

Example 2:

 `# R program to calculate log value ``print``(log(``10``,base``=``10``)) ``print``(log(``16``,base``=``2``)) ``print``(log(``0``,base``=``10``)) ``print``(log(``-``44``,base``=``4``)) `

Output:

```[1] 1
[1] 4
[1] -Inf
[1] NaN
Warning message:
In print(log(-44, base = 4)) : NaNs produced
```

#### log10() Function

The `log10()` is an inbuilt function in R which is used to compute the logarithm of the specified value to base 10, infinity for 0, and NaN for the negative value.

Syntax: log10(x)

Parameters:
x: Specified values.

Returns: It returns the logarithm of the specified value to base 10,infinity for 0 and NaN for negative value.

Example 2:

 `# R program to calculate log value ``print``(log10(``1``)) ``print``(log10(``10``)) ``print``(log10(``0``)) ``print``(log10(``-``44``)) `

Output:

```[1] 0
[1] 1
[1] -Inf
[1] NaN
Warning message:
In print(log10(-44)) : NaNs produced
```

#### log1p()

The `log1p()` is an inbuilt function in R which is used to calculate accurate natural logarithm of 1+x, where x is the specified value and throws infinity for 0 and NaN for negative value.

Syntax: log1p(x)

Parameters:
x: Specified values.

Returns: It returns the accurate natural logarithm of 1+x, where x is the specified value and throws infinity for 0 and NaN for negative value.

Example:

 `# R program to illustrate ``# the use of log1p() method`` ` `# Getting the accurate natural ``# logarithm of 1 + x, where x is ``# the specified value and throws ``# infinity for 0 and NaN for negative value.``print``(log1p(``1``))``print``(log1p(``10``))``print``(log1p(``0``))``print``(log1p(``-``44``))`

Output:

```[1] 0.6931472
[1] 2.397895
[1] 0
[1] NaN
Warning message:
In log1p(-44) : NaNs produced
```

#### log2()

The `log2()` is an inbuilt function in R which is used to calculate the logarithm of x to base 2, where x is the specified value or throws infinity for 0 and NaN for negative value.

Syntax: log2(x)

Parameters:
x: Specified values.

Returns: It returns the logarithm of x to base 2, where x is the specified value or throws infinity for 0 and NaN for negative value.

Example:

 `# R program to illustrate ``# the use of log2() method`` ` `# Getting the logarithm of x ``# to base 2, where x is the ``# specified value or throws ``# infinity for 0 and NaN for negative value.``print``(log2(``1``))``print``(log2(``2``))``print``(log2(``0``))``print``(log2(``-``44``))`

Output:

```[1] 0
[1] 1
[1] -Inf
[1] NaN
Warning message:
In print(log2(-44)) : NaNs produced
```

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