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Performing Logarithmic Computations in R Programming – log(), log10(), log1p(), and log2() Functions
  • Last Updated : 05 Jun, 2020

log() function in R Language returns the natural logarithm (base-e logarithm) of the argument passed in the parameter.

Syntax: log(x)

Parameter:
x: Specified value.

Returns: It returns the natural logarithm of the specified value, infinity for 0 and NaN for the negative value.

Example 1:



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# R program to calculate log value 
print(log(1)) 
print(log(30)) 
print(log(0)) 
print(log(-44)) 

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Output:

[1] 0
[1] 3.401197
[1] -Inf
[1] NaN
Warning message:
In log(-44) : NaNs produced

logarithmic-function

log(x, base = y)

The log(x,base=y) is an inbuilt function in R which is used to compute the logarithm of the specified value to base y, infinity for 0, and NaN for the negative value.

Syntax: log(x, base = y)

Parameters:
x and base y.

Returns: It returns the logarithm of the specified value to base y, infinity for 0, and NaN for the negative value.

Example 2:

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# R program to calculate log value 
print(log(10,base=10)) 
print(log(16,base=2)) 
print(log(0,base=10)) 
print(log(-44,base=4)) 

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Output:



[1] 1
[1] 4
[1] -Inf
[1] NaN
Warning message:
In print(log(-44, base = 4)) : NaNs produced

log10() Function

The log10() is an inbuilt function in R which is used to compute the logarithm of the specified value to base 10, infinity for 0, and NaN for the negative value.

Syntax: log10(x)

Parameters:
x: Specified values.

Returns: It returns the logarithm of the specified value to base 10,infinity for 0 and NaN for negative value.

Example 2:

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# R program to calculate log value 
print(log10(1)) 
print(log10(10)) 
print(log10(0)) 
print(log10(-44)) 

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Output:

[1] 0
[1] 1
[1] -Inf
[1] NaN
Warning message:
In print(log10(-44)) : NaNs produced

log1p()

The log1p() is an inbuilt function in R which is used to calculate accurate natural logarithm of 1+x, where x is the specified value and throws infinity for 0 and NaN for negative value.

Syntax: log1p(x)

Parameters:
x: Specified values.

Returns: It returns the accurate natural logarithm of 1+x, where x is the specified value and throws infinity for 0 and NaN for negative value.



Example:

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# R program to illustrate 
# the use of log1p() method
  
# Getting the accurate natural 
# logarithm of 1 + x, where x is 
# the specified value and throws 
# infinity for 0 and NaN for negative value.
print(log1p(1))
print(log1p(10))
print(log1p(0))
print(log1p(-44))

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Output:

[1] 0.6931472
[1] 2.397895
[1] 0
[1] NaN
Warning message:
In log1p(-44) : NaNs produced

log2()

The log2() is an inbuilt function in R which is used to calculate the logarithm of x to base 2, where x is the specified value or throws infinity for 0 and NaN for negative value.

Syntax: log2(x)

Parameters:
x: Specified values.

Returns: It returns the logarithm of x to base 2, where x is the specified value or throws infinity for 0 and NaN for negative value.

Example:

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# R program to illustrate 
# the use of log2() method
  
# Getting the logarithm of x 
# to base 2, where x is the 
# specified value or throws 
# infinity for 0 and NaN for negative value.
print(log2(1))
print(log2(2))
print(log2(0))
print(log2(-44))

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Output:

[1] 0
[1] 1
[1] -Inf
[1] NaN
Warning message:
In print(log2(-44)) : NaNs produced
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