Part of Speech Tagging with Stop words using NLTK in python

The Natural Language Toolkit (NLTK) is a platform used for building programs for text analysis. One of the more powerful aspects of the NLTK module is the Part of Speech tagging.

In order to run the below python program you must have to install NLTK. Please follow the installation steps.

  • Open your terminal, run pip install nltk.
  • Write python in the command prompt so python Interactive Shell is ready to execute your code/Script.
  • Type import nltk

A GUI will pop up then choose to download “all” for all packages, and then click ‘download’. This will give you all of the tokenizers, chunkers, other algorithms, and all of the corpora, so that’s why installation will take quite time.

import nltk

let’s knock out some quick vocabulary:
Corpus : Body of text, singular. Corpora is the plural of this.
Lexicon : Words and their meanings.
Token : Each “entity” that is a part of whatever was split up based on rules.

In corpus linguistics, part-of-speech tagging (POS tagging or PoS tagging or POST), also called grammatical tagging or word-category disambiguation.

Input: Everything is all about money.
Output: [('Everything', 'NN'), ('is', 'VBZ'), 
          ('all', 'DT'),('about', 'IN'), 
          ('money', 'NN'), ('.', '.')] 

Here’s a list of the tags, what they mean, and some examples:

CC coordinating conjunction
CD cardinal digit
DT determiner
EX existential there (like: “there is” think of it like “there exists”)
FW foreign word
IN preposition
/subordinating conjunction
JJ adjective
JJR adjective
, comparative ‘bigger’
JJS adjective
, superlative ‘biggest’
LS list marker
MD modal could
, will
NN noun
, singular ‘desk’
NNS noun plural
NNP proper noun
, singular ‘Harrison’
NNPS proper noun
, plural ‘Americans’
PDT predeterminer
‘all the kids’
POS possessive ending parent
PRP personal pronoun I, he, she
PRP$ possessive pronoun my, his, hers
RB adverb very, silently,
RBR adverb, comparative better
RBS adverb, superlative best
RP particle give up
TO to go ‘
to‘ the store.
UH interjection errrrrrrrm
VB verb, base form take
VBD verb, past tense took
VBG verb, gerund/present participle taking
VBN verb, past participle taken
VBP verb, sing. present, non-3d take
VBZ verb, 3rd person sing. present takes
WDT wh-determiner which
WP wh-pronoun who, what
WP$ possessive wh-pronoun whose
WRB wh-abverb where, when

Text may contain stop words like ‘the’, ‘is’, ‘are’. Stop words can be filtered from the text to be processed. There is no universal list of stop words in nlp research, however the nltk module contains a list of stop words.
You can add your own Stop word. Go to your NLTK download directory path -> corpora -> stopwords -> update the stop word file depends on your language which one you are using. Here we are using english (stopwords.words(‘english’)).

import nltk
from nltk.corpus import stopwords
from nltk.tokenize import word_tokenize, sent_tokenize
stop_words = set(stopwords.words('english'))
// Dummy text
txt = "Sukanya, Rajib and Naba are my good friends. " \
    "Sukanya is getting married next year. " \
    "Marriage is a big step in one’s life." \
    "It is both exciting and frightening. " \
    "But friendship is a sacred bond between people." \
    "It is a special kind of love between us. " \
    "Many of you must have tried searching for a friend "\
    "but never found the right one."
# sent_tokenize is one of instances of 
# PunktSentenceTokenizer from the nltk.tokenize.punkt module
tokenized = sent_tokenize(txt)
for i in tokenized:
    # Word tokenizers is used to find the words 
    # and punctuation in a string
    wordsList = nltk.word_tokenize(i)
    # removing stop words from wordList
    wordsList = [w for w in wordsList if not w in stop_words] 
    #  Using a Tagger. Which is part-of-speech 
    # tagger or POS-tagger. 
    tagged = nltk.pos_tag(wordsList)


[('Sukanya', 'NNP'), ('Rajib', 'NNP'), ('Naba', 'NNP'), ('good', 'JJ'), ('friends', 'NNS')]
[('Sukanya', 'NNP'), ('getting', 'VBG'), ('married', 'VBN'), ('next', 'JJ'), ('year', 'NN')]
[('Marriage', 'NN'), ('big', 'JJ'), ('step', 'NN'), ('one', 'CD'), ('’', 'NN'), ('life', 'NN')]
[('It', 'PRP'), ('exciting', 'VBG'), ('frightening', 'VBG')]
[('But', 'CC'), ('friendship', 'NN'), ('sacred', 'VBD'), ('bond', 'NN'), ('people', 'NNS')]
[('It', 'PRP'), ('special', 'JJ'), ('kind', 'NN'), ('love', 'VB'), ('us', 'PRP')]
[('Many', 'JJ'), ('must', 'MD'), ('tried', 'VB'), ('searching', 'VBG'), ('friend', 'NN'), 
('never', 'RB'), ('found', 'VBD'), ('right', 'RB'), ('one', 'CD')]

Basically, the goal of a POS tagger is to assign linguistic (mostly grammatical) information to sub-sentential units. Such units are called tokens and, most of the time, correspond to words and symbols (e.g. punctuation).

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