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Parsing and converting HTML documents to XML format using Python

  • Last Updated : 23 Aug, 2021

In this article, we are going to see how to parse and convert HTML documents to XML format using Python.

It can be done in these ways:

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  • Using Ixml module.
  • Using Beautifulsoup module.

Method 1: Using the Python lxml library

In this approach, we will use Python’s lxml library to parse the HTML document and write it to an encoded string representation of the XML tree.The lxml XML toolkit is a Pythonic binding for the C libraries libxml2 and libxslt. It is unique in that as it combines the speed and XML feature completeness of these libraries with the simplicity of a native Python API, mostly compatible but superior to the well-known ElementTree API.



Installation:

pip install lxml

We need to provide the path to open the HTML document to read and parse it using the html.fromstring(str) function, returning a single element/document tree. This function parses a document from the given string. This always creates a correct HTML document, which means the parent node is <html>, and there is a body and possibly a head.

htmldoc = html.fromstring(inp.read())

And write the parsed HTML element/document tree to an encoded string representation of its XML tree using the etree.tostring() function.

out.write(etree.tostring(htmldoc))

Html file used: input.

Code:

Python3






# Import the required library
from lxml import html, etree
  
# Main Function
if __name__ == '__main__':
  
    # Provide the path of the html file
    file = "input.html"
  
    # Open the html file and Parse it, 
    # returning a single element/document.
    with open(file, 'r', encoding='utf-8') as inp:
        htmldoc = html.fromstring(inp.read())
  
    # Open a output.xml file and write the 
    # element/document to an encoded string 
    # representation of its XML tree.
    with open("output.xml", 'wb') as out:
        out.write(etree.tostring(htmldoc))

Output:

Method 2: Using the BeautifulSoup

In this approach, we will use the BeautifulSoup module to parse the raw HTML document using html.parser and modify the parsed document and write it to an XML file. Provide the path to open the HTML file and read the HTML file and Parse it using BeautifulSoup’s html.parser, returning an object of the parsed document.

BeautifulSoup(inp, ‘html.parser’)

To remove the DocType HTML, we need to first get the string representation of the document using soup.prettify() and then split the document by lines using splitlines(), returning a list of lines.

soup.prettify().splitlines()

Code:

Python3




# Import the required library
from bs4 import BeautifulSoup
  
# Main Function
if __name__ == '__main__':
  
    # Provide the path of the html file
    file = "input.html"
  
    # Open the html file and Parse it 
    # using Beautiful soup's html.parser.
    with open(file, 'r', encoding='utf-8') as inp:
        soup = BeautifulSoup(inp, 'html.parser')
      
    # Split the document by lines and join the lines
    # from index 1 to remove the doctype Html as it is 
    # present in index 0 from the parsed document.
    lines = soup.prettify().splitlines()
    content = "\n".join(lines[1:])
  
    # Open a output.xml file and write the modified content.
    with open("output.xml", 'w', encoding='utf-8') as out:
        out.write(content)

Output:




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