Paper Cut into Minimum Number of Squares | Set 2

Given a paper of size A x B. Task is to cut the paper into squares of any size. Find the minimum number of squares that can be cut from the paper.

Examples:

Input  : 36 x 30
Output : 5
Explanation : 
3 (squares of size 12x12) + 
2 (squares of size 18x18)

Input  : 4 x 5
Output : 5
Explanation : 
1 (squares of size 4x4) + 
4 (squares of size 1x1)

Asked in : Google



We have already discussed the Greedy approach to solve this problem in previous article. But the previous approach doesn’t always work. For example, it fails for the above first test case. So, in this article we solve this problem using Dynamic Programming.

We know that if we want to cut minimum number of squares from the paper then we would have to cut largest square possible from the paper first and largest square will have same side as smaller side of the paper. For example if paper have the size 13 x 29, then maximum square will be of side 13. so we can cut 2 square of size 13 x 13 (29/13 = 2). Now remaining paper will have size 3 x 13. Similarly we can cut remaining paper by using 4 squares of size 3 x 3 and 3 squares of 1 x 1. So minimum 9 squares can be cut from the Paper of size 13 x 29.

dig1



Explanation:
minimumSquare is a function which tries to split the rectangle at some position. The function is called recursively for both parts. Try all possible splits and take the one with minimum result. The base case is when both sides are equal i.e the input is already a square, in which case the result is 1. We are trying to find the cut which is nearest to the center which will lead us to our minimum result.

Assuming we have a rectangle with width is N and height is M.

  • if (N == M), so it is a square and nothing need to be done.
  • Otherwise, we can divide the rectangle into two other smaller one (N – x, M) and (x, M), so it can be solved recursively.
  • Similarly, we can also divide it into (N, M – x) and (N, x)

Below is the implementation of above idea using Dynamic Programming.

C++

// C++ program to find minimum number of squares
// to cut a paper using Dynamic Programming
#include<bits/stdc++.h>
using namespace std;
  
const int MAX = 300;
int dp[MAX][MAX];
  
// Returns min number of squares needed
int minimumSquare(int m, int n)
{
    // Initializing max values to vertical_min 
    // and horizontal_min
    int vertical_min = INT_MAX;
    int horizontal_min = INT_MAX;
      
    // If the given rectangle is already a square
    if (m == n)
        return 1;
      
    // If the answer for the given rectangle is 
    // previously calculated return that answer
    if (dp[m][n])
            return dp[m][n];
      
    /* The rectangle is cut horizontally and 
       vertically into two parts and the cut 
       with minimum value is found for every 
       recursive call. 
    */
      
    for (int i = 1;i<= m/2;i++)
    {
        // Calculating the minimum answer for the 
        // rectangles with width equal to n and length 
        // less than m for finding the cut point for 
        // the minimum answer
        horizontal_min = min(minimumSquare(i, n) + 
                minimumSquare(m-i, n), horizontal_min); 
    }
      
    for (int j = 1;j<= n/2;j++)
    {
        // Calculating the minimum answer for the 
        // rectangles with width less than n and 
        // length equal to m for finding the cut 
        // point for the minimum answer
        vertical_min = min(minimumSquare(m, j) + 
                minimumSquare(m, n-j), vertical_min);
    }
          
    // Minimum of the vertical cut or horizontal 
    // cut to form a square is the answer
    dp[m][n] = min(vertical_min, horizontal_min); 
          
    return dp[m][n];
}
  
// Driver code
int main()
{
    int m = 30, n = 35;
    cout << minimumSquare(m, n);
    return 0;
}
  
// This code is contributed by Utkarsh Gupta

Java

// Java program to find minimum number of
// squares to cut a paper using Dynamic
// Programming
import java.io.*;
  
class GFG {
  
    static int dp[][] = new int[300][300];
  
    // Returns min number of squares needed
    static int minimumSquare(int m, int n)
    {
        // Initializing max values to
        // vertical_min and horizontal_min
        int vertical_min = Integer.MAX_VALUE;
        int horizontal_min = Integer.MAX_VALUE;
      
        // If the given rectangle is 
        // already a square
        if (m == n)
            return 1;
      
        // If the answer for the given 
        // rectangle is previously 
        // calculated return that answer
        if (dp[m][n] != 0)
                return dp[m][n];
          
        /* The rectangle is cut horizontally
        and vertically into two parts and 
        the cut with minimum value is found
        for every recursive call. 
        */
      
        for (int i = 1; i <= m / 2; i++)
        {
            // Calculating the minimum answer 
            // for the rectangles with width 
            // equal to n and length less than
            // m for finding the cut point for 
            // the minimum answer
            horizontal_min = Math.min(
                            minimumSquare(i, n) + 
                            minimumSquare(m-i, n),
                            horizontal_min); 
        }
      
        for (int j = 1; j <= n / 2; j++)
        {
            // Calculating the minimum answer 
            // for the rectangles with width 
            // less than n and length equal to
            // m for finding the cut point for
            // the minimum answer
            vertical_min = Math.min(
                           minimumSquare(m, j) + 
                           minimumSquare(m, n-j),
                           vertical_min);
        }
          
        // Minimum of the vertical cut or 
        // horizontal cut to form a square
        // is the answer
        dp[m][n] = Math.min(vertical_min,
                         horizontal_min); 
          
        return dp[m][n];
    }
  
    // Driver code
    public static void main(String[] args)
    {
        int m = 30, n = 35;
        System.out.println(minimumSquare(m, n));
    }
}
// This code is contributed by Prerna Saini

Python3

# Python3 program to find minimum 
# number of squares 
# to cut a paper using Dynamic Programming 
  
MAX = 300
dp=[[0 for i in range(MAX)] for i in range(MAX)]
  
# Returns min number of squares needed 
def minimumSquare(m,n):
      
    # Initializing max values to 
    # vertical_min 
    # and horizontal_min
    vertical_min=10000000000
    horizontal_min=10000000000
      
    # If the given rectangle is 
    # already a square 
    if m==n:
        return 1
          
    # If the answer for the given rectangle is 
    # previously calculated return that answer 
    if dp[m][n]!=0:
        return dp[m][n]
          
    # The rectangle is cut horizontally and 
    # vertically into two parts and the cut 
    # with minimum value is found for every 
    # recursive call. 
    for i in range(1,m//2+1):
          
        # Calculating the minimum answer for the 
        # rectangles with width equal to n and length 
        # less than m for finding the cut point for 
        # the minimum answer
        horizontal_min = min(minimumSquare(i, n)+
                         minimumSquare(m-i, n), horizontal_min)
    for j in range(1,n//2+1):
          
        # Calculating the minimum answer for the 
        # rectangles with width equal to n and length 
        # less than m for finding the cut point for 
        # the minimum answer
        vertical_min = min(minimumSquare(m,j)+
                       minimumSquare(m,n-j), vertical_min)
                         
    # Minimum of the vertical cut or horizontal
    # cut to form a square is the answer
    dp[m][n]=min(vertical_min,horizontal_min)
    return dp[m][n]
  
# Driver code
if __name__=='__main__':
    m = 30
    n = 35
    print(minimumSquare(m, n))
  
#This code is contributed by sahilshelangia

C#

// C# program to find minimum number of
// squares to cut a paper using Dynamic
// Programming
using System;
  
class GFG {
  
    static int [,]dp = new int[300,300];
  
    // Returns min number of squares needed
    static int minimumSquare(int m, int n)
    {
        // Initializing max values to
        // vertical_min and horizontal_min
        int vertical_min = int.MaxValue;
        int horizontal_min = int.MaxValue;
      
        // If the given rectangle is 
        // already a square
        if (m == n)
            return 1;
      
        // If the answer for the given 
        // rectangle is previously 
        // calculated return that answer
        if (dp[m,n] != 0)
                return dp[m,n];
          
        /* The rectangle is cut horizontally
        and vertically into two parts and 
        the cut with minimum value is found
        for every recursive call. 
        */
      
        for (int i = 1; i <= m / 2; i++)
        {
            // Calculating the minimum answer 
            // for the rectangles with width 
            // equal to n and length less than
            // m for finding the cut point for 
            // the minimum answer
            horizontal_min = Math.Min(
                            minimumSquare(i, n) + 
                            minimumSquare(m-i, n),
                            horizontal_min); 
        }
      
        for (int j = 1; j <= n / 2; j++)
        {
            // Calculating the minimum answer 
            // for the rectangles with width 
            // less than n and length equal to
            // m for finding the cut point for
            // the minimum answer
            vertical_min = Math.Min(
                        minimumSquare(m, j) + 
                        minimumSquare(m, n-j),
                        vertical_min);
        }
          
        // Minimum of the vertical cut or 
        // horizontal cut to form a square
        // is the answer
        dp[m,n] = Math.Min(vertical_min,
                        horizontal_min); 
          
        return dp[m,n];
    }
  
    // Driver code
    public static void Main()
    {
        int m = 30, n = 35;
        Console.WriteLine(minimumSquare(m, n));
    }
}
  
// This code is contributed by anuj_67.


Output:

5

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