Paging in Operating System
Paging is a memory management scheme that eliminates the need for contiguous allocation of physical memory. The process of retrieving processes in the form of pages from the secondary storage into the main memory is known as paging. The basic purpose of paging is to separate each procedure into pages. Additionally, frames will be used to split the main memory.This scheme permits the physical address space of a process to be non – contiguous.
Let us look some important terminologies:
- Logical Address or Virtual Address (represented in bits): An address generated by the CPU
- Logical Address Space or Virtual Address Space( represented in words or bytes): The set of all logical addresses generated by a program
- Physical Address (represented in bits): An address actually available on memory unit
- Physical Address Space (represented in words or bytes): The set of all physical addresses corresponding to the logical addresses
Features of paging:
- Mapping logical address to physical address.
- Page size is equal to frame size.
- Number of entries in a page table is equal to number of pages in logical address space.
- The page table entry contains the frame number.
- All the page table of the processes are placed in main memory.
- If Logical Address = 31 bit, then Logical Address Space = 231 words = 2 G words (1 G = 230)
- If Logical Address Space = 128 M words = 27 * 220 words, then Logical Address = log2 227 = 27 bits
- If Physical Address = 22 bit, then Physical Address Space = 222 words = 4 M words (1 M = 220)
- If Physical Address Space = 16 M words = 24 * 220 words, then Physical Address = log2 224 = 24 bits
The mapping from virtual to physical address is done by the memory management unit (MMU) which is a hardware device and this mapping is known as paging technique.
- The Physical Address Space is conceptually divided into a number of fixed-size blocks, called frames.
- The Logical address Space is also splitted into fixed-size blocks, called pages.
- Page Size = Frame Size
Let us consider an example:
- Physical Address = 12 bits, then Physical Address Space = 4 K words
- Logical Address = 13 bits, then Logical Address Space = 8 K words
- Page size = frame size = 1 K words (assumption)
- Page number(p): Number of bits required to represent the pages in Logical Address Space or Page number
- Page offset(d): Number of bits required to represent particular word in a page or page size of Logical Address Space or word number of a page or page offset.
Physical Address is divided into
- Frame number(f): Number of bits required to represent the frame of Physical Address Space or Frame number.
- Frame offset(d): Number of bits required to represent particular word in a frame or frame size of Physical Address Space or word number of a frame or frame offset.
The hardware implementation of page table can be done by using dedicated registers. But the usage of register for the page table is satisfactory only if page table is small. If page table contain large number of entries then we can use TLB(translation Look-aside buffer), a special, small, fast look up hardware cache.
- The TLB is associative, high speed memory.
- Each entry in TLB consists of two parts: a tag and a value.
- When this memory is used, then an item is compared with all tags simultaneously.If the item is found, then corresponding value is returned.