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Output of JavaScript Programs

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  • Difficulty Level : Medium
  • Last Updated : 17 Jan, 2023
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In this article, we will see the outputs of various Javascript programs.

Predict and Explain the Output of the below JavaScript programs.

Example 1: When (x, y, z) is logged, x gives value 4 (as primitives are passed by value, and hence its value does not change even after function f()). y is an array, hence an object, and so it is passed by reference and its index 0 gets changed to X. So y logs X, B, C. Inside function f(), c.first has been changed to false and since it is passed by reference, it logs first: false. In function g(), a new object is created with the value true and so it logs first: true. Finally, in the last line, z.first is still equal to false and hence it logs first: false.

Javascript




function f(a, b, c) {
    m = ["1", "2", "3"];
    a = 3;
    b[0] = "X";
    c.first = false;
}
  
var x = 4;
var y = ["A", "B", "C"];
var z = { first: true };
  
f(x, y, z);
console.log(x, y, z);
  
function g(a) {
    a = { first: true };
    console.log(a);
}
  
g(z);
console.log(z);

Output: 

4 ["X", "B", "C"] {first:false} {first:true} {first:false}

Example 2: In foo1(), the bar object is returned as it should and hence it gives the output {bar:”hello”}. But in foo2(), the newline after the return is interpreted differently. It implicitly puts a semicolon after the return and the corresponding set of lines is treated as a block of statements. So foo2() has the following return statement- return; which gives output as undefined.

Javascript




<script type="text/javascript" charset="utf-8">
    function foo1() {
    return {
       bar: "hello"
    }
    }
      
    function foo2() {
    return
    {
       bar: "hello";
    }
    }
      
    console.log(foo1());
    console.log(foo2());
</script>

Output: 

{bar:"hello"} 
undefined

 Example 3: The setTimeout() function is called only after the parent function has been executed fully and returned. So even though console.log(3) has a timeout of 0 milliseconds, it is executed only after the parent function has returned after logging 1 and 4. Then 3 is logged. Finally, after a timeout of 1000 milliseconds, 2 is logged.

Javascript




(function() {
   console.log(1);
   setTimeout(function(){console.log(2)}, 1000);
   setTimeout(function(){console.log(3)}, 0);
   console.log(4);
})();

Output: 

1
4
3
2

Example 4: With the help of an Immediately Invoked Function Expression (IIFE), its own scope will be created, and we can pass i to the function. Variable i will be a local variable and the value of i in every loop will be preserved and finally printed after a timeout of 1 second.

Javascript




for (var i = 0; i < 5; i++) {
   (function(x) {
      setTimeout(function() {
         console.log(x);
      },  1000 );
   })(i);
}

Output: 

0
1
2
3
4

Example 5: var x has been defined and initialized inside check() after it is logged. Hoisting works only for variable declaration and not for initialization, so it returns undefined. In check(), y has been initialized to 10. Since var is not used, the variable has its scope until it encounters a variable by the given name or the global object. So when check2() is called, it logs 10 as the output.

Javascript




var x= 5;
function check(){
   y = 10;
   console.log(x);
   var x =10;
}
  
function check2(){
   console.log(y);
}
  
check();
check2();

Output: 

undefined 
10

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