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Operators in C | Set 1 (Arithmetic Operators)
  • Difficulty Level : Easy
  • Last Updated : 18 Nov, 2020

Operators are the foundation of any programming language. Thus the functionality of C language is incomplete without the use of operators. Operators allow us to perform different kinds of operations on operands. In C, operators in Can be categorized in following categories: 

  • Arithmetic Operators (+, -, *, /, %, post-increment, pre-increment, post-decrement, pre-decrement)
  • Relational Operators (==, !=, >, <, >= & <=) Logical Operators (&&, || and !)
  • Bitwise Operators (&, |, ^, ~, >> and <<)
  • Assignment Operators (=, +=, -=, *=, etc)
  • Other Operators (conditional, comma, sizeof, address, redirection)

Arithmetic Operators: These are used to perform arithmetic/mathematical operations on operands. The binary operators falling in this category are: 

  • Addition: The ‘+’ operator adds two operands. For example, x+y.
  • Subtraction: The ‘-‘ operator subtracts two operands. For example, x-y.
  • Multiplication: The ‘*’ operator multiplies two operands. For example, x*y.
  • Division: The ‘/’ operator divides the first operand by the second. For example, x/y.
  • Modulus: The ‘%’ operator returns the remainder when first operand is divided by the second. For example, x%y.

C




// C program to demonstrate
// working of binary arithmetic
// operators
#include <stdio.h>
 
int main()
{
    int a = 10, b = 4, res;
 
    // printing a and b
    printf("a is %d and b is %d\n", a, b);
 
    res = a + b; // addition
    printf("a+b is %d\n", res);
 
    res = a - b; // subtraction
    printf("a-b is %d\n", res);
 
    res = a * b; // multiplication
    printf("a*b is %d\n", res);
 
    res = a / b; // division
    printf("a/b is %d\n", res);
 
    res = a % b; // modulus
    printf("a%%b is %d\n", res);
 
    return 0;
}

C++




#include <iostream>
using namespace std;
 
int main() {
    int a = 10, b = 4, res;
 
    // printing a and b
    cout<<"a is "<<a<<" and b is "<<b<<"\n";
 
    // addition
    res = a + b; 
    cout << "a+b is: "<< res << "\n";
 
    // subtraction
    res = a - b; 
    cout << "a-b is: "<< res << "\n";
     
    // multiplication
    res = a * b; 
    cout << "a*b is: "<< res << "\n";
     
    // division
    res = a / b;
    cout << "a/b is: "<< res << "\n";
     
    // modulus
    res = a % b;
    cout << "a%b is: "<< res << "\n";
 
    return 0;
}

Output: 

a is 10 and b is: 4
a+b is: 14
a-b is: 6
a*b is: 40
a/b is: 2
a%b is: 2

The ones falling into the category of unary arithmetic operators are: 

  • Increment: The ‘++’ operator is used to increment the value of an integer. When placed before the variable name (also called pre-increment operator), its value is incremented instantly. For example, ++x
    And when it is placed after the variable name (also called post-increment operator), its value is preserved temporarily until the execution of this statement and it gets updated before the execution of the next statement. For example, x++.
  • Decrement: The ‘ – – ‘ operator is used to decrement the value of an integer. When placed before the variable name (also called pre-decrement operator), its value is decremented instantly. For example, – – x
    And when it is placed after the variable name (also called post-decrement operator), its value is preserved temporarily until the execution of this statement and it gets updated before the execution of the next statement. For example, x – –.

C




// C program to demonstrate working
// of Unary arithmetic
// operators
#include <stdio.h>
 
int main()
{
    int a = 10, b = 4, res;
 
    // post-increment example:
    // res is assigned 10 only, a is not updated yet
    res = a++;
    printf("a is %d and res is %d\n", a,
           res); // a becomes 11 now
 
    // post-decrement example:
    // res is assigned 11 only, a is not updated yet
    res = a--;
    printf("a is %d and res is %d\n", a,
           res); // a becomes 10 now
 
    // pre-increment example:
    // res is assigned 11 now since
    // a is updated here itself
    res = ++a;
     
    // a and res have same values = 11
    printf("a is %d and res is %d\n", a, res);
 
    // pre-decrement example:
    // res is assigned 10 only since a is updated here
    // itself
    res = --a;
     
    // a and res have same values = 10
    printf("a is %d and res is %d\n", a, res);
 
    return 0;
}

C++




#include <iostream>
using namespace std;
 
int main()
{
    int a = 10, b = 4, res;
 
    // post-increment example:
    // res is assigned 10 only,
    // a is not updated yet
    res = a++;
    // a becomes 11 now
    cout << "a is " << a
         << " and res is "
         << res << "\n";
 
    // post-decrement example:
    // res is assigned 11 only,
    // a is not updated yet
    res = a--;
    // a becomes 10 now
    cout << "a is " << a
         << " and res is "
         << res << "\n";
 
    // pre-increment example:
    // res is assigned 11 now
    // since a is updated here itself
    res = ++a;
     
    // a and res have same values = 11
    cout << "a is " << a
         << " and res is "
         << res << "\n";
 
    // pre-decrement example:
    // res is assigned 10 only
    // since a is updated here
    // itself
    res = --a;
    // a and res have same values = 10
    cout << "a is " << a
         << " and res is "
         << res << "\n";
 
    return 0;
}

Output: 

a is 11 and res is 10
a is 10 and res is 11
a is 11 and res is 11
a is 10 and res is 10

We will soon be discussing other categories of operators in different posts.
To know about Operator Precedence and Associativity, refer this link:
Quiz on Operators in C
This article is contributed by Ayush Jaggi. Please write comments if you find anything incorrect, or you want to share more information about the topic discussed above

Want to learn from the best curated videos and practice problems, check out the C Foundation Course for Basic to Advanced C.



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