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Open Source Terminologies
  • Last Updated : 15 Feb, 2021

This article contains all the terminologies related to Open-Source, all definitions and terms which are required in the Networking and open standards.

Open Source Software (OSS) :
It is a software where the n number of condition or we could say the restriction is not required. Including the source code, the software as well is freely available to users, even the copies can be distributed by users freely and are freely used, modified with no prior permission.

Free/Libre/Open-Source Software (FLOSS) :
It is open-source and free software, so we can say everyone has the freedom to use it. Both OSS and FLOSS, refer to one program or source code but the technical progress (Open source) and freedom (Free software) have an individual emphasis on each other.

GNU :
This is initiated and developed to complete a UNIX style operating system. It was launched in 1984 and has free software – GNU system. It is pronounced as “guh-noo” and it is a GNU project. This is expanded by the Free Software Foundation (FSF).

Free Software Foundation (FSF) :
This is the Free Software Foundation which is created to support GNU project and license as it always endures to be the primary sponsor of GNU projects. This is a non-profit organization originated by Richard Stallman in 1985. This will give a development system for GNU maintainers as well as email and shell services in addition to service given by Savannah for GU projects.



Open Source Initiatives (OSI) :
This organization promotes open-source software. OSI was developed by Bruce Perens and Eric Raymond in 1998. This will tell about the term and specifications.

World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) :
It was founded in October 1994. The responsibility of W3C is to develop protocols and for software standard towards the World Wide Web. The protocol is defined as WWW.W3C’s mission which is to make WWW lead up to its full proclaimed calibre and potential by ensuring the guidelines and protocols for a long run achievement. 

Freeware :
The software which is free of charge and unnecessarily free to be used, copied, studied, modified and redistributed as it is a computer system software. Without the submission of any sort of fees the freeware is distributed in binary, and we can say it is different from shareware as in this payment is needed for a past trial date. Example – Microsoft Internet Explorer.

Shareware :
The user has to pay license fees but for an initial period, it is free of cost. This is opposite of freeware as here, there is no source code provided without any modification in the software. The software is dispensed in binary form and includes a time mechanism. This name is formulated by Bob Wallace for describing in own words PC-Write.

Proprietary Software :
This software source code is not available freely. The regulation and distribution are done with special permission of supplier or proprietor. This is not open-source software.

Localisation :
The abbreviation term used for this is “l10n” (number ten between letter n and l as the indulgence of ten letters is there.

Localization :
To the locality, it is the adaption of an object.

Linux :
This refers to the kernel of O/S and is a popular Operating System. With the source code, it is easily available so is a good example of free software. From WWW.Linux.org anyone can download it, so this can be modified redistributed and used easily. This was specifically developed for Intel 386 microprocessors and is now supported by all.



Mozilla :
The Mozilla Application Suite with code name SeaMonkey is a free, cross-platform internet suite whose component is e-mail, web browser a news client, HTML editor and IRC clients. This is developed by Netscape Communication Corporation. The development was spearheaded by Mozilla Organization from 1998 to 2003.

Apache Server :
It is also called Apache HTTP Server. This gives an initial boost for expansion of WWW as it is an established standard in online distribution of website services. It is an open-source web service platform which will definitely guarantee the online availability of the various website in the large run. The widely popular modern web platform like UNIX, Windows, Linux, Solaris, Novel Net ware, Free BSD, Mac OS X, Microsoft Windows, OS/2 etc. is aimed by the server. Everything can be freely downloaded from site WWW.Apache.org.

MySQL :
This can be spelt out as “My Es s Queue Ell” not “My Sequel” from the name of Monty’s child the “My” portion came out. It is a multi-user database system this is written in a mixture of C and C++. 

PostgresSQL :
This is a free object-relational database server which is released under a flexible BSD-style license. For MySQL and Fire-bird as well as for proprietary system like Oracle, DB2 IBM’s, SyBase and Microsoft SQL Server the alternative is provided by the open-source database system.

Pango :
This is an open-source library for drawing texts in the various script. For handling the worldwide written scripts this is used. Also in various open-source projects, it is been used, to avail a library go to WWW.Pango.org.

OpenOffice :
OpenOffice.org (abbreviated as Ooo) is a free and open-source office suite, this was founded by international office suite which runs all major platform and gives access to all functionality and data through open-component based APIs and XML based file format.

Open Document Format :
This is an open XML based document file format for office applications to be used for documentation containing text, spreadsheet, charts, and graphical elements. Transformation is made by file format by leveraging reusing existing standards.

Ogg Vorbis :
For storing and playing music, that is free, open and unpatented it is an audio compression format, comparable to other formats. This is in a public domain and is freely available in commercial or non-commercial usage. 

Tomcat :
The servlets and JSPs are supported by this web server. This comes up with Jasper compiler that compiles JSP’s into servlets this specification implementation is done by James Duncan Davidson software architect at Sun.

Apache Tomcat :
It is a web container which is developed at Apache Software Foundation.

Hypertext Preprocessor (PHP) :
It is a server-side scripting language for creating a dynamic web page and is open-source programming language which helps in developing server-side application and dynamic web content.

Python :
A programming language which has syntactic simplicity, flexible typing and interactive interpreter. It is used in both industry and academic for a wide variety of purpose. The symbol used is less like Java and C. Example – Blocks inside loops and IF statements indicated by indentation rather than curly braces({}) end line there is no use of the semicolon.

UNICODE :
The goal of Unicode is to give means by which text of all forms and language is encoded for use of a computer which is an industry-standard.

Indian Standard Code for Information Interchange (ISCII) :
In 1991, the Bureau adopted IISCII and this evolved by a standard committee of C-DAC a member under Department of Electronics during 1986-88.

Font Type :

  • Raster Fonts – 
    Each glyph defined as a little bitmap designed for a specific resolution.
  • Vector Fonts – 
    That contain glyph which is defined as a set of points that describe the line segment.
  • PostScript Type 1 Fonts –
    Adobe launched PostScript Type 1 together with PostScript Type 3 1984 has a scalable font technology which is famous among desktop publishers but is now phasing out as Open Type font.
  • True Type Fonts – 
    A font technology that is scalable designed by Apple Computer, available since 1991
  • Open Type Font Collection – 
    This is an extension of True Type font format allowing support font PostScript font data.

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