Object level and Class level locks in Java

Synchronization : Synchronization is a modifier which is used for method and block only. With the help of synchronized modifier we can restrict a shared resource to be accessed only by one thread. When two or more threads need access to shared resources, there is some loss of data i.e. data inconsistency. The process by which we can achieve data consistency between multiple threads it is called Synchronization.

Why do you need Synchronization?
Let us assume if you have two threads that are reading and writing to the same ‘resource’. Suppose there is a variable named as geek, and you want that at one time only one thread should access the variable(atomic way). But Without the synchronized keyword, your thread 1 may not see the changes thread 2 made to geek, or worse, it may only be half changed that cause the data inconsistency problem. This would not be what you logically expect. The tool needed to prevent these errors is synchronization.

In synchronization, there are two types of locks on threads:



  1. Object level lock : Every object in java has a unique lock. Whenever we are using synchronized keyword, then only lock concept will come in the picture. If a thread wants to execute synchronized method on the given object. First, it has to get lock of that object. Once thread got the lock then it is allowed to execute any synchronized method on that object. Once method execution completes automatically thread releases the lock. Acquiring and release lock internally is taken care by JVM and programmer is not responsible for these activities. Lets have a look on the below program to understand the object level lock:
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    // Java program to illustrate
    // Object lock concept
    class Geek implements Runnable {
        public void run()
        {
            Lock();
        }
        public void Lock()
        {
            System.out.println(Thread.currentThread().getName());
            synchronized(this)
            {
                System.out.println("in block "
                    + Thread.currentThread().getName());
                System.out.println("in block "
                    Thread.currentThread().getName() + " end");
            }
        }
      
        public static void main(String[] args)
        {
            Geek g = new Geek();
            Thread t1 = new Thread(g);
            Thread t2 = new Thread(g);
            Geek g1 = new Geek();
            Thread t3 = new Thread(g1);
            t1.setName("t1");
            t2.setName("t2");
            t3.setName("t3");
            t1.start();
            t2.start();
            t3.start();
        }
    }

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    Output:

    t1
    in block t1
    in block t1 end
    t2
    in block t2
    in block t2 end
    t3
    in block t3
    in block t3 end
    
  2. Class level lock : Every class in java has a unique lock which is nothing but class level lock. If a thread wants to execute a static synchronized method, then thread requires class level lock. Once a thread got the class level lock, then it is allowed to execute any static synchronized method of that class. Once method execution completes automatically thread releases the lock. Lets look on the below program for better understanding:

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    // Java program to illustrate class level lock
    class Geek implements Runnable {
        public void run()
        {
            Lock();
        }
      
        public void Lock()
        {
            System.out.println(Thread.currentThread().getName());
            synchronized(Geek.class)
            {
                System.out.println("in block " 
                    + Thread.currentThread().getName());
                System.out.println("in block " 
                    + Thread.currentThread().getName() + " end");
            }
        }
      
        public static void main(String[] args)
        {
            Geek g1 = new Geek();
            Thread t1 = new Thread(g1);
            Thread t2 = new Thread(g1);
            Geek g2 = new Geek();
            Thread t3 = new Thread(g2);
            t1.setName("t1");
            t2.setName("t2");
            t3.setName("t3");
            t1.start();
            t2.start();
            t3.start();
        }
    }

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    Output:

    t1
    in block t1
    in block t1 end
    t2
    in block t2
    in block t2 end
    t3
    in block t3
    in block t3 end
    

Reference : https://docs.oracle.com/javase/tutorial/essential/concurrency/sync.html

This article is contributed by Bishal Kumar Dubey. If you like GeeksforGeeks and would like to contribute, you can also write an article using contribute.geeksforgeeks.org or mail your article to contribute@geeksforgeeks.org. See your article appearing on the GeeksforGeeks main page and help other Geeks.

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