# numpy.pv() in Python

numpy.fv(rate, nper, pmt, fv, when = ‘end’) : This financial function helps user to compute future values.

Parameters :

rate : [array_like] Rate of interest as decimal (not per cent) per period
nper : [array_like] total compounding periods
pmt : [array_like] fixed payment
fv : [array_like, optional] future value. Default = 0.0
when : at the beginning (when = {‘begin’, 1}) or the end (when = {‘end’, 0}) of each period. Default is {‘end’, 0}

Return :

```present value as per given parameters.
```

Equation being solved :

```fv + pv*(1 + rate)**nper +
pmt*(1 + rate*when)/rate*((1 + rate)**nper - 1) = 0```

or when rate == 0

`fv + pv + pmt * nper = 0`

Code 1 : Working

 `## Python program explaining pv() function ` ` `  `import` `numpy as np ` `''' ` `Question :  ` ` `  `What is the present value (e.g., the initial investment) ` `of an investment that needs to total \$15692.93 after 10 ` `years of saving \$100 every month?  ` `Assume the interest rate is 5% (annually) compounded monthly. ` `'''` ` `  `#                 rate        np       pmt   fv ` `Solution ``=` `np.pv(``0.05``/``12``, ``10``*``12``, ``-``100``, ``15692.93``) ` ` `  `print``(``"present value (fv) : "``, Solution) `

Output :

```present value (fv) :  -100.000671316
```

Reference :
https://docs.scipy.org/doc/numpy-1.13.0/reference/generated/numpy.pv.html

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