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NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 10 Biotechnology and Its Applications

Last Updated : 05 Jul, 2023
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*As per the revised curriculum of CBSE Syllabus 2023-24, this chapter, previously known as Chapter 12, has now been renumbered as Chapter 10. Stay updated with the latest changes in the curriculum.

Biotechnology and Its Applications Class 12 NCERT Solution is all about the process of Biotechnology and how it can be used for various purposes. These NCERT Solutions are prepared by our Top Biology Experts in order to take care of all Important Topics that might be asked in the upcoming examination 2023. So, Students can also refer to these solutions for their final Examination preparation.

Class 12 Biology Chapter 10 Biotechnology and Its Application NCERT Solutions are carefully developed using easy-to-understand language while adhering to the guidelines for solving NCERT Solutions for Class 12. Working through these solutions can be highly beneficial for students in their board exams, as well as in preparing for future competitive Exams.

Biotechnology and Its Application Class 12 Questions and Answers

NCERT CBSE Chapter 10 Biotechnology and its Applications of Class 12 explains the advantages of biotechnology to obtaining new products and organisms in order to improve human health and society. The applications of biotechnology include therapeutics, diagnostics, and genetically modified organisms. Revise the basic concepts of Biotechnology and its Applications for quick revision and class notes.

Q1: Crystals of Bt toxin produced by some bacteria do not kill the bacteria themselves because:

  • (a) Bacteria are resistant to the toxin.
  • (b) Toxin is immature.
  • (c) The toxin is inactive.
  • (d) Bacteria enclose toxins in a special sac.

Answer:

The toxin is inactive: The Bt toxin remains inactive in bacteria. It is only activated when it enters the insect’s gut due to an alkaline pH in the gut.

Q2: What are transgenic bacteria? Illustrate using any one example.

Answer:

Transgenic bacteria are genetically engineered bacteria into which a desired gene has been introduced. Once the desired gene is introduced, these bacteria are mass-produced and the resulting products are modified for use. An example of a transgenic bacterium is E. coli, which is used commercially to make many useful products, such as the hormone insulin, used by diabetics. The A and B chains of the peptide sequence are added to the bacterial genome and can grow individually. They then combine to form the insulin sequence.

Q3: Compare and contrast the advantages and disadvantages of the production of genetically modified crops.

Answer:

Genetically modified (GM) crops are crops that are developed through modifications in the genetic makeup of the crop to get desirable variety and quality. 

There are many advantages of the production of genetically modified (GM) or transgenic crops, which are stated below:

  1. The pest resistance property in genetically modified crops helps to increase their productivity. Hence, it makes us less reliant on chemical pesticides.
  2. Genetically modified crops increase the efficiency of minerals in the soil. So, loss of soil fertility can easily be prevented.
  3. Post-harvest losses can be reduced through the use of genetically modified plants. 
  4. GMO crops show a high level of tolerance to adverse conditions, e.g. e.g. drought, flood, high salinity, etc. 
  5. GMO crops are enriched with better nutrient quality, for example.B. golden rice, which is rich in vitamin A. 

GMO crops also have some disadvantages which are listed below: 

  1. GMO crops can affect human health as they may contain certain allergens and are resistant to antibiotics new to the human body. 
  2. Acceptance of genetically modified crops in place of some traditional crops is controversial. 
  3. Honeybees may be affected during pollination if the BT toxin gene is expressed in the affected plant.
  4. The presence of transgene in genetically modified plants threatens many wild species. 
  5. The cost of growing GM crops is high.

Q4: What are Cry proteins? Name an organism that produces it. How has man exploited this protein to his benefit?

Answer:

Cry proteins are proteins that are toxic and encoded by cry genes. These are extracted by a bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis which itself remains safe from cry toxins as they have methylated DNA which significantly improves disease-risk stratification. Cry proteins act as insecticides because they are toxic to insects. This property of Cry proteins has been implemented in the production of genetically modified crops e.g. Bt cotton, Bt brinjal, etc.

Q5: What is gene therapy? Illustrate using the example of adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency.

Answer:

Gene therapy is a method applied to a child or embryo that treats a genetic disease by inserting a therapeutic gene in place of the damaged or non-functioning gene. Adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency is due to the deletion of the gene that codes for the enzyme adenosine deaminase, which is necessary for the proper functioning of the immune system. The patient’s lymphocytes are removed and cultured in a laboratory, where a functional ADA gene is introduced using a retrovirus. The transgenic lymphocytes are injected back into the patient’s bone marrow, which then produces functional T lymphocytes, thereby activating the patient’s immune system.

Q6: Diagrammatically represent the experimental steps in cloning and expressing a human gene (say, the gene for growth hormone) into a bacterium like E. coli.

Answer:

Cloning is a scientific method to make identical copies of an organism, cell, or DNA sequence. The main steps involved in the cloning are:

  1. Isolation/extraction of the DNA of interest (or target DNA)
  2. Ligation
  3. Transfection/transformation
  4. Screening/selection procedure

A diagrammatic representation of the experimental steps in cloning is:

Experimental steps in cloning

Q7: Can you suggest a method to remove oil (hydrocarbon) from seeds based on your understanding of rDNA technology and the chemistry of oil?

Answer:

Recombinant DNA technology is a technique in which an organism’s genome can be manipulated to achieve desired results. Oils are made up of glycerin and fatty acids. The oil can be extracted from the seeds by detecting a gene responsible for the production of fatty acids and glycerol. So, with recombinant DNA technology, we can silence the gene that codes for glycerol and fatty acids to remove the oil (hydrocarbon) from the seed.

Q8: Find out on the internet what is golden rice.

Answer:

Golden rice is a genetically modified crop. It is a process of improving the nutritional quality of food crops that increases the nutritional value of the crops. Golden rice is a crop that has been genetically engineered to produce beta-carotene, which is normally absent from rice. Beta-carotene is metabolized into vitamin A. In 2016, Indian President Planar Mukherjee said the Indian Institute of Agricultural Research had developed golden rice rich in provitamin A.

Q9: Does our blood have proteases and nucleases?

Answer:

Proteases are the enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of proteins, and nucleases are the enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of nucleic acids. These enzymes are not present in our blood.

Q10: Consult the internet and find out how to make orally active protein pharmaceuticals. What is the major problem to be encountered?

Answer:

Pharmaceutical orally active proteins contain biologically active proteins, peptides and other biomolecules. They are taken through various preparations. These biomolecules are used in the treatment of many diseases. The main problem that can arise when administering these pharmaceutical agents is that they are taken orally and digested by the proteases present in the stomach before the results are visible. Therefore, these medicines are routed directly to their destination.

Key Features of NCERT Solutions Class 12 Biology Chapter 10 Biotechnology and Its Applications

  • They enhance the conceptual knowledge of the students.
  • Clear and Comprehensible Content.
  • Aid in Competitive Exam Preparation.
  • The answers are provided by Top subject experts.
  • Readily available and easily accessible.

FAQs on Biotechnology and Its Applications Class 12 NCERT Solution

Q1: What is the name of chapter 10 of NCERT class 12 Biology?

Answer:

Class 12 Biology Chapter 10 name is Biotechnology and Its Application which is the advantages of biotechnology to obtaining new products and organisms in order to improve human health and society.

Q2: Where can I find NCERT solutions for the Class 12 Biology Chapter 10?

Answer:

NCERT solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 10 can be found on various online platforms such as the official NCERT website, GeeksForGeeks, and more.

Q3: Why are NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 10 beneficial for the students??

Answer:

The benefits of using the NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 10 are:

  1. Completely solved answers for all the questions present in the NCERT textbook are available in PDF format.
  2. Simple and easy-to-understand language is used to make learning fun for the students.
  3. Top Subject matter experts prepare the solutions after conducting vast research on each concept.
  4. The solutions not only help students with their board exam preparation but also for various competitive exams like JEE, NEET, etc.


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