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NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 5 – Life Process

Last Updated : 11 Sep, 2023
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*As per the revised curriculum of CBSE Syllabus 2023-24, this chapter, previously known as Chapter 6, has now been renumbered as Chapter 5. Stay updated with the latest changes in the curriculum.

NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 6 Life Processes is all about the important process performed by an organism. These NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science are prepared by our Top Biology Experts in order to take care of all Important Topics that might be asked in the upcoming examination 2023. So, Students can also refer to these solutions for their final Examination preparation.

This Class 10 Biology Chapter 5 Life Process NCERT Solutions are carefully developed using easy-to-understand language while adhering to the guidelines for solving NCERT Solutions for Class 10. Working through these solutions can be highly beneficial for students in their board exams, as well as in preparing for future competitive Exams.

Life Process Class 10 Questions and Answers

NCERT CBSE Chapter 05 Life Processes of Class 10 focuses on basic essential activities performed by an organism. Important life processes include nutrition, transportation, metabolism, respiration, reproduction, and excretion, which help in the maintenance of living organisms. Revise the basic concepts of Life Processes for quick revision and class notes.

NCERT Solutions For Class 10 Chapter 05 of Page 81

Q1: Why is diffusion insufficient to meet the oxygen requirements of multicellular organisms like humans?


Diffusion is insufficient to meet the oxygen requirement of multicellular organisms like humans because all the cells are not in direct contact with the environment. Also, the process of diffusion is too slow to cover the distance between the gas exchange surface and the sites where oxygen is required.

Q2: What criteria do we use to decide whether something is alive?


All living organisms share several key characteristics or functions: order, sensitivity or response to the environment, reproduction, adaptation, growth and development, homeostasis, energy processing, and evolution. When viewed together, these characteristics serve to define life.

Q3: What are outside raw materials used for by an organism?


Energy is required by all living species, to sustain and preserve their existence. Oxygen, water, and food are examples of external raw materials used by organisms. 

  • Plants obtain their raw materials from the environment in the form of carbon dioxide, water, and sunlight.
  • Animals use basic materials in the form of food, water, and oxygen from the environment.

Q4: What processes would you consider essential for maintaining life?


The various processes essential for maintaining life are:

  1. Nutrition 
  2. Respiration
  3. Transportation 
  4. Excretion 
  5. Control and coordination
  6. Reproduction.

NCERT Solutions For Class 10 Chapter 05 of Page 87

Q1: What are the differences between autotrophic nutrition and heterotrophic nutrition?


Autotrophic Nutrition

Heterotrophic Nutrition

Organisms prepare their own nutrition and are not reliant on others The organism does not prepare its own food and is reliant on the food of other organisms.
Food is prepared from CO2, water, sunlight Food cannot be prepared from CO2, water, sunlight
Chlorophyll is required for food preparation Chlorophyll is not required for food preparation
Autotrophic nutrition is used by green plants and some microorganisms. Heterotrophic nutrition is used by all animals and fungi, as well as the majority of bacteria.

Q2: Where do plants get each of the raw materials required for photosynthesis?


Raw materials for photosynthesis and their sources:

  • Carbon Dioxide (CO2): CO2 is obtained by plants from the atmosphere via stomata.
  • Water: Plants take water from the earth and transmit it to their leaves via their roots.
  • Sunlight: Sun is the only source of light that the chlorophyll and other green elements of the plant absorb.

Q3: What is the role of the acid in our stomach?


The hydrochloric acid present in the gastric juice breaks down the food and the digestive enzymes split up the proteins. The acidic gastric juice also kills bacteria.

Q4: What is the function of digestive enzymes?


Digestive enzymes play a key role in breaking down the food we eat. These proteins speed up chemical reactions that turn nutrients into substances that our digestive tract can absorb.

Q5: How is the small intestine designed to absorb digested food?


The lining of the small intestinal mucosa is very highly specialized for maximizing digestion and absorption of nutrients. The lining is highly folded to form microscopic finger-like projections called villi which increase the surface area to help with absorption.

NCERT Solutions For Class 10 Chapter 05 of Page 91

Q1: What advantage over an aquatic organism does a terrestrial organism have with regard to obtaining oxygen for respiration?


Terrestrial organisms take up oxygen from the atmosphere whereas aquatic animals obtain oxygen dissolved in water. 
Air contains more O2 as compared to water. So, a terrestrial organism is able to get several times more oxygen than an aquatic animal.

Q2: What are the different ways in which glucose is oxidized to provide energy in various organisms?


The two ways in which glucose is oxidized to provide energy in various organisms are:

  1. Aerobic respiration
  2. Anaerobic respiration.

Q3: How are oxygen and carbon dioxide transported in human beings?


The exchange of gases between the external environment and the tissues is the transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide to and from the lung by the blood. Oxygen is carried both physically dissolved in the blood and chemically combined with hemoglobin. Carbon dioxide is carried physically dissolved in the blood, chemically combined to blood proteins as carbamino compounds, and as bicarbonate.

Q4: How are the lungs designed in human beings to maximize the area for the exchange of gases?


The lungs are divided into bronchi, and the bronchi are divided into bronchioles. The alveoli are small, round, or balloon-like structures at the ends of the bronchioles that increase surface area and maximize gas exchange in the lungs.

NCERT Solutions For Class 10 Chapter 05 of Page 96

Q1: What are the components of the transport system in human beings? What are the functions of these components?


Components of the transport system with their functions:

  1. Heart: The human heart’s primary role is to circulate blood throughout the body.
  2. Blood: Transportation of oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, hormones, heat, and wastes.
  3. Blood vessels: 3 types of blood vessels are present those are:
    1. Arteries – carry oxygenated blood away from the heart to the capillaries.
    2. Capillaries – These facilitate the exchange of materials with the tissues.
    3. Veins – return deoxygenated blood from the capillaries to the heart.
  4. Lymphatic system: Functions include defending the body against microorganisms that cause disease (pathogens), preserving bodily fluid balance, absorbing lipids from the digestive tract, and eliminating cellular waste.

Q2: Why is it necessary to separate oxygenated and deoxygenated blood in mammals and birds?


Separation of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood allows a highly efficient supply of oxygen to the body. This helps to maintain the body temperature.

Q3: What are the components of the transport system in highly organized plants?


Xylem & Phloem are the components of the transport system in highly organized plants.

Q4: How are water and minerals transported in plants?


Root hair absorbs plants through the soil via diffusion. Water then transport from various cell to cells via osmosis. Xylem transports water, minerals, and nutrients from the soil to all the plant parts.

Q5: How is food transported in plants?


Food is transported from the leaves to the rest of the plant by the Phloem.

NCERT Solutions For Class 10 Chapter 05 of Page 98

Q1: Describe the structure and functioning of nephrons.


The nephron is the minute or microscopic structural and functional unit of the kidney. It is composed of a Renal corpuscle and a Renal tubule. The renal corpuscle consists of a tuft of capillaries called a Glomerulus and a cup-shaped structure called Bowman’s capsule.

  1. Renal corpuscle is the site of the filtration of blood plasma. The renal corpuscle consists of:
    1. Glomerulus: The glomerulus is the network known as a tuft, of filtering capillaries located at the vascular pole of the renal corpuscle in Bowman’s capsule.
    2. Glomerular capsule or Bowman’s capsule: The Bowman’s capsule, also called the glomerular capsule, surrounds the glomerulus. It is composed of a visceral inner layer formed by specialized cells called podocytes, and a parietal outer layer composed of simple squamous epithelium.
  2. Renal Tubule:  The renal tubule is a long pipe-like structure containing the tubular fluid filtered through the glomerulus. After passing through the renal tubule, the filtrate continues to the collecting duct system. The components of the renal tubule are:
    1. Proximal convoluted tubule
    2. Loop of Henle
      1. Descending limb of the loop of Henle
      2. Ascending limb of the loop of Henle
    3. Distal Convoluted Tubule
    4. Collecting Tubule


Functions of Nephron

  • Proximal Tubule: Fluid in the filtrate entering the proximal convoluted tubule is reabsorbed into the peritubular capillaries, including 80% of glucose, more than half of the filtered salt, water, and all filtered organic solutes.
  • The loop of Henle: It is a U-shaped tube that extends from the proximal tubule. It consists of a descending limb and an ascending limb. The primary role of the loop of Henle is to enable an organism to produce concentrated urine, not by increasing the tubular concentration, but by rendering the interstitial fluid hypertonic. As the filtrate descends deeper into the hypertonic interstitium of the renal medulla, water flows freely out of the descending limb by osmosis until the tonicity of the filtrate and interstitium equilibrate
  • The Distal Convoluted Tubule: It has a different structure and function to that of the proximal convoluted tubule. Cells lining the tubule have numerous mitochondria to produce enough energy (ATP) for active transport to take place.
  • Connecting tubule: This is the final segment of the tubule before it enters the collecting duct system. Water, some salts, and nitrogenous waste like urea and creatinine are passed out to the collecting tubule. 
  • Collecting Duct System: The last part of a long, twisting tube that collects urine from the nephrons (cellular structures in the kidney that filter blood and form urine) and moves it into the renal pelvis and ureters. Also called renal collecting tubule.
  • Juxtaglomerular Apparatus: The juxtaglomerular apparatus functions to maintain blood pressure and to act as a quality control mechanism to ensure proper glomerular flow rate and efficient sodium reabsorption.

Q2:  What are the methods used by plants to get rid of excretory products?


Plants get rid of excretory products by the process of transpiration. Waste products may be stored in vacuoles or may be stored in leaves, which fall off. Resins and gums are stored in the xylem which is harmless to trees. When the leaves and bark are shed, the wastes are eliminated.

Q3: How is the amount of urine produced regulated?


Amount of urine is regulated by ADH and Aldosterone. 

  • The osmotic gradient is normally constant, but the permeability of the collecting duct to water is adjusted by a hormone, antidiuretic hormone, ADH.
  • Aldosterone maintains salt balance in the body.

NCERT Solutions For Class 10 Chapter 05 

Q1: The kidneys in human beings are a part of the system for:

  • Nutrition
  • Respiration
  • Excretion
  • Transportation


The major function of the kidneys is to remove waste products and excess fluid from the body. These waste products and excess fluid are removed through the urine. The production of urine involves highly complex steps of excretion and re-absorption. So, the correct option is c) Excretion.

Q2: The xylem in plants is responsible for:

  • Transport of water
  • Transport of food
  • Transport of amino acids
  • Transport of oxygen


Xylem is the tissue of vascular plants that transports water and nutrients from the soil to the stems and leaves. Hence, the correct option is a) Transport of water.

Q3: The autotrophic mode of nutrition requires:

  • Carbon dioxide & water 
  • Chlorophyll
  • Sunlight
  • All of the above


Autotrophic nutrition is the type of nutrition where organisms synthesize their own food. They are called producers in the ecosystem. They use sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide to synthesize food. So, the correct option is d) all of the above.

Q4: The breakdown of pyruvate to give carbon dioxide, water, and energy takes place in

  • Cytoplasm
  • Mitochondria
  • Chloroplast
  • Nucleus


The breakdown of pyruvate in order to generate carbon dioxide, water, and energy in the presence of oxygen is known as aerobic respiration. It mainly occurs in the eukaryotic cells when they have oxygen in sufficient amounts and it takes place in the Mitochondria. So, the correct answer is b) Mitochondria.

Q5: How are fats digested in our bodies? Where does this take place?


The process of fat digestion involves a series of steps that begin the moment food enters the mouth. Here’s a look at the process from beginning to end:

  1. Mouth: The digestion process begins when we start chewing our food. Our teeth break the food into smaller pieces, and saliva moistens the food so that it’s easier for it to move through the esophagus and into the stomach. Saliva also contains enzymes that begin breaking down the fat in our food.
  2. Esophagus: When we swallow, a series of muscle contractions called peristalsis moves the food through our esophagus and into our stomach.
  3. Stomach: Our stomach lining produces acids and enzymes that break down our food further so that the foods can pass to the small intestine.
  4. Small intestine: The majority of fat digestion happens in the small intestine. This is also where the majority of nutrients are absorbed. Pancreas produces enzymes that break down fats, carbohydrates, and proteins. Our liver produces bile that helps us digest fats and certain vitamins. This bile is stored in the gallbladder. These digestive juices are delivered to our small intestine through ducts where it all works together to complete the fat breakdown.

Q6: What is the role of saliva in the digestion of food?


Saliva contains special enzymes that help digest the starches in our food. An enzyme called amylase breaks down starches (complex carbohydrates) into sugars, which our body can more easily absorb. Saliva also contains an enzyme called lingual lipase, which breaks down fats.

Q7: What are the necessary conditions for autotrophic nutrition and what are its by-products?


Autotrophic nutrition takes place through the process of photosynthesis. Carbon dioxide, water, chlorophyll pigment, and sunlight are the necessary conditions required for autotrophic nutrition. Carbohydrates (food) and O2 are the by-products of photosynthesis.

CO2 + H2O ——-› C6H12O6 + O2

Q8: What are the differences between aerobic and anaerobic respiration? Name some organisms that use the anaerobic mode of respiration’


Aerobic Respiration

Anaerobic respiration

Aerobic respiration takes place in the presence of oxygen Anaerobic respiration takes place in the absence of oxygen
Carbon dioxide and water are the end products of aerobic respiration Alcohol is the end product of anaerobic respiration.
Chemical Equation: C6H12O6  + 6O2 → 6CO2  + 6H2O + energy (as ATP) Chemical equation: C6H12O6  → 2C3H6O3 + Energy
Releases more energy than anaerobic respiration. Releases less energy than aerobic respiration.
This occurs in many plants and animals Occurs in human muscle cells, bacteria, etc.

Some organisms that use the anaerobic mode of respiration are Yeast, Fusobacterium, Prevotella, Bacteroides, and Protozoans.

Q9: How are the alveoli designed to maximize the exchange of gases?


Some of the primary features of alveoli that enable the exchange of gases are listed below:

  • Large surface area: Lungs have several alveoli. The shape of these alveoli further enhances the surface area.
  • Thin walls: One cell’s thick alveolar walls give a short distance for the gases to diffuse through.
  • Permeable walls: The permeable walls enable the gases to pass-through
  • Moist walls: The dissolution of gases in the moisture helps them to pass across the gas exchange surface.

Q10: What would be the consequences of a deficiency of hemoglobin in our bodies?


A deficiency of hemoglobin in the human body will result in anemia. Hemoglobin is present in red blood cells which carry oxygen to cells of the body. A decrease in its amount will result in a decrease in the oxygen-carrying capacity of blood leading to breathlessness and fatigue.

Q11: Describe double circulation in human beings. Why is it necessary?


Double circulation describes the fact that blood flows twice in the heart before it completes one full round. One is pulmonary circulation and the other is systemic circulation. 

  • Pulmonary circulation starts from the pulmonary artery which divides into two branches that enter the respective lungs. Pulmonary veins collect the oxygenated blood from the lungs and carry it back to the left auricle of the heart. 
  • Systemic circulation starts with the aorta that arises from the left ventricle. The aorta arches back and continues behind as aorta. The aorta sends arteries to various parts of the body and tissues. From there, blood is collected by veins and sent back to the heart.

Circulatory System

This type of double circulation is necessary for human beings to separate oxygenated and deoxygenated blood as this enhances the efficiency of cellular respiration in humans and consequently helps in maintaining a constant body temperature.

Q12: What are the differences between the transport of materials in the xylem and phloem?


Transport of material in Xylem

Transport of material in Xylem

The xylem supplies water from the roots to the stem and leaves. Phloem transports food resources from leaves to other plant portions.
Water is transported from ascending roots to aerial parts of the plants. The movement of food in phloem is bidirectional.
Physical forces such as transpiration pull are required for transport in the xylem. The transport of food through the phloem requires ATP (Adenosine triphosphate) energy.

Q13: Compare the functioning of alveoli in the lungs and nephrons in the kidneys with respect to their structure and functioning 


The comparison of Alveoli in the lungs and Nephrons in the kidneys are as follows:

Alveoli in the lungs

Nephrons in the kidneys

Structural Difference

Alveoli in the lungs are the tiny air sacs that are located in the lungs that help in the rapid exchange of gases. Nephrons in the kidneys consist of glomerulus and tubules through which glomerular filtrate passes.
Situated in the respiratory system Situated in the respiratory system
Around four eighty million alveoli are found in each lung One million nephrons are found in kidneys
Sac-like structures Tubular structures
Made up of simple squamous epithelium Made up of simple cuboidal epithelium with microvilli

Functional difference

Facilitates gaseous exchange in lungs Facilitates blood filtration in order to produce urine
Pulmonary arterioles supply blood to the alveoli Afferent arterioles supply blood to the nephrons
Blood is supplied to pulmonary veins by the alveoli Nephrons supply blood to renal veins.

Key Features of NCERT Solutions Class 10 Biology Chapter 5 Life Process

  • They enhance the conceptual knowledge of the students.
  • Clear and Comprehensible Content.
  • Aid in Competitive Exam Preparation.
  • The answers are provided by Top subject experts.
  • Readily available and easily accessible.

Also Check:

FAQ’s on Human Reproduction Class 12 NCERT Solution

Q1: What is the name of chapter 5 of NCERT Class 10 Biology?

Class 10 Biology Chapter 5 name is Life Process which explains all the important processes needed for living organisms.

Q2: Where can I find NCERT solutions for Class 10 Biology Chapter 5?

NCERT solutions for Class 10 Biology Chapter 5 can be found on various online platforms such as the official NCERT website, GeeksForGeeks, and more.

Q3. What does the concept of Aerobic Respiration entail in Chapter 6 of NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science?

1. Aerobic respiration occurs in the presence of oxygen.

2. Its products include CO2, water, and energy.

3. The process involves glycolysis in the cytoplasm as the initial step, followed by the mitochondria for the second step.

4. Aerobic respiration is a fundamental process in all higher organisms.

5. It achieves the full oxidation of glucose during this metabolic process.

Q4. How can students benefit from the CBSE Free PDF Download available through online free resources for their studies?

Students can benefit significantly from the CBSE Free PDF Download available through online free resources by accessing study materials, textbooks, and other educational resources at no cost. These PDFs can serve as valuable supplements to their learning, enabling them to review, practice, and deepen their understanding of various subjects and topics. It offers a convenient and accessible way to study and prepare for exams without the need for physical textbooks, making it a cost-effective and flexible option for students seeking quality educational materials.

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