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NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 3 Reproductive Health

Last Updated : 09 May, 2024
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As per the revised curriculum of CBSE Syllabus 2023-24, the Reproductive health chapter, previously known as Chapter 4, has now been renumbered as Chapter 3. Stay updated with the latest changes in the curriculum.

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 3 Reproductive Health is all about the importance of reproductive health and how to maintain good reproductive health. These NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology are prepared by our Top Biology Experts in order to take care of all Important Topics that might be asked in the upcoming examination 2023. So, Students can also refer to these solutions for their final Examination preparation.

NCERT Class 12 Biology Chapter 3 Solutions offered are carefully developed using easy-to-understand language while adhering to the guidelines for solving NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology. Working through these solutions can be highly beneficial for students in their board exams, as well as in preparing for future competitive Exams.

Reproductive Health Questions and Answers Class 12

Q1: What do you think is the significance of reproductive health in a society?

Answer: 

Reproductive health is a fundamental aspect of overall health and well-being. It refers to complete physical, mental, and social well-being in all matters related to the reproductive system throughout the life cycle. The significance of reproductive health in a society cannot be overstated, and here are some reasons why:

  1. Promotes gender equality: Reproductive health empowers women to make choices about their reproductive lives, including when to have children, how many children to have, and the spacing between children. By ensuring access to family planning services, women can participate more fully in society and have better opportunities for education, employment, and economic advancement.
  2. Prevents maternal and infant mortality: Complications related to pregnancy and childbirth are among the leading causes of death for women globally. Access to quality reproductive health care services, including prenatal care, delivery care, and postpartum care, can prevent maternal and infant mortality.
  3. Reduces the spread of sexually transmitted infections: Reproductive health services, including HIV testing and counseling, can help prevent the spread of sexually transmitted infections.

Q2: Suggest the aspects of reproductive health which need to be given special attention in the present scenario.

Answer:  

In the present scenario, there are several aspects of reproductive health that require special attention. Here are some of the most critical aspects:

  1. Access to family planning: Access to family planning services is vital for women’s reproductive health. It enables them to make informed decisions about their reproductive lives, including when to have children and how many children to have. Ensuring access to family planning services is essential, especially in low-income countries where women may lack access to information and resources.
  2. Maternal and child health: Maternal and child health is another critical aspect of reproductive health. Lack of access to quality maternal healthcare services, including prenatal care, delivery care, and postpartum care, can lead to maternal and infant mortality. Ensuring women have access to quality maternal healthcare services is vital to reducing maternal and infant mortality rates.
  3. Prevention and treatment of sexually transmitted infections (STIs): Preventing and treating STIs is crucial for reproductive health. STIs can have severe consequences, including infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and cervical cancer. Ensuring access to STI prevention and treatment services, including testing and counseling, is carried out.

Q3: Is sex education necessary in schools? Why?

Answer:  

Yes, sex education is necessary in schools. Sex education is a crucial aspect of overall education that helps young people to develop healthy attitudes toward sexuality and relationships. Here are some reasons why sex education is necessary in schools:

  1. Information: Sex education provides young people with accurate and reliable information about sexual health, including contraception, STIs, and pregnancy. It enables them to make informed decisions about their sexual health and well-being.
  2. Protection: Sex education helps young people to protect themselves from unwanted pregnancies, STIs, and other sexual health-related problems. It teaches them the importance of safe sex practices, including condom use.
  3. Empowerment: Sex education empowers young people to make responsible and informed decisions about their sexual lives. It helps them develop healthy attitudes towards sexuality and relationships, which can lead to better self-esteem and confidence.
  4. Prevention: Sex education can help prevent sexual violence and abuse by teaching young people about healthy relationships and boundaries.
  5. Inclusivity: Sex education can help promote inclusivity by providing information about sex-related issues.

Q4: Do you think that reproductive health in our country has improved in the past 50 years? If yes, mention some such areas of improvement.

Answer: 

Globally, there have been significant improvements in reproductive health over the past 50 years. Here are some areas where improvements have been seen:

  1. Access to family planning: Governments and organizations have made significant strides in increasing access to contraceptives and family planning services, which has helped to reduce unintended pregnancies and maternal mortality.
  2. Maternal and child health: Advances in medical technology and improvements in healthcare infrastructure have helped to reduce maternal and child mortality rates.
  3. HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment: The development of antiretroviral therapy and increased access to testing and treatment has greatly improved the lives of people living with HIV/AIDS.
  4. Legalization of abortion: In many countries, the legalization of abortion has helped to reduce unsafe abortions and improve reproductive health outcomes for women.
  5. Education: Increased education and awareness about reproductive health and rights have helped to reduce stigma and improve access to care.

Overall, while there is still much work to be done, there have been significant improvements in reproductive health over the past 50 years.

Q5: What are the suggested reasons for the population explosion?

Answer: 

There are several suggested reasons for the population explosion:

  1. Improved Medical Facilities: The advancement of medical technology and better healthcare facilities have led to a significant reduction in mortality rates. This has resulted in longer life expectancies and an increase in the number of people living to reproductive age.
  2. Increase in Agricultural Production: The development of new agricultural technologies and practices has led to an increase in food production. This has made it possible to feed more people, leading to a population increase.
  3. Technological Advancements: The rapid pace of technological advancements has led to an increase in industrial production, which has created more job opportunities. This has led to an increase in urbanization and migration to cities, leading to a population increase.
  4. Social and Cultural Factors: Social and cultural factors such as the desire for large families, religious beliefs, and traditional values have contributed to the population explosion.
  5. Lack of Education: A lack of education and awareness about family planning and birth control methods has also contributed to the population explosion. Many people are unaware of the importance of family planning.

Q6: Is the use of contraceptives justified? Give reasons.

Answer: 

Yes, the use of contraceptives is justified for several reasons.

  • Firstly, contraceptives help prevent unplanned pregnancies, which can have significant physical, emotional, and financial consequences for individuals and families. Contraceptives can help women and couples make informed decisions about when to have children and how many to have, based on their health, financial situation, and personal goals.
  • Secondly, contraceptives can help reduce the incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Condoms, for example, are an effective method of preventing the transmission of STIs, including HIV.
  • Thirdly, the use of contraceptives can help reduce maternal mortality rates, as it allows women to space their pregnancies and avoid unintended pregnancies, which can lead to unsafe abortions.
  • Fourthly, the use of contraceptives can help promote gender equality and women’s empowerment, as it allows women to have greater control over their reproductive health, education, and career opportunities.
  • Lastly, the use of contraceptives is a responsible and ethical choice that respects rights and autonomy.

Q7: Removal of gonads cannot be considered a contraceptive option. Why?

Answer:

The removal of gonads, which are the reproductive organs that produce gametes (sperm or eggs), cannot be considered a contraceptive option because it is a permanent and irreversible procedure. This means that once the gonads are removed, the person will no longer be able to produce gametes and will become infertile.

Contraceptive methods, on the other hand, are designed to prevent pregnancy without permanently altering the reproductive system. Contraceptives can be used to delay or prevent ovulation, inhibit fertilization, or prevent implantation of a fertilized egg. They offer a range of options that allow individuals to make informed decisions about their reproductive health and family planning goals, while still being able to maintain their fertility if they choose to do so.

Furthermore, the removal of gonads is a major surgical procedure that carries significant risks, including bleeding, infection, and complications related to anesthesia. It is typically only recommended for medical reasons, such as in cases of cancer or other serious health conditions. As such, it is not a suitable option for contraception.

Q8: Amniocentesis for sex determination is banned in our country. Is this ban necessary? Comment.

Answer:

Yes, the ban on amniocentesis for sex determination is necessary in our country. Sex-selective abortions have become a significant problem in many parts of the world, including India, where they are often used to eliminate female fetuses. This practice has led to a significant decline in the female-to-male sex ratio, which has serious implications for the future of our country.

Amniocentesis is a medical procedure that involves the removal of a small amount of amniotic fluid from the sac surrounding the fetus. The fluid is then analyzed to determine the sex of the fetus. Although amniocentesis is a valuable diagnostic tool for detecting genetic disorders and other health problems, it has been widely misused for sex determination.

The ban on amniocentesis for sex determination is necessary to prevent the practice of sex-selective abortions. It sends a strong message that this practice is not acceptable and helps to protect the rights of unborn female fetuses. Additionally, it encourages the use of other methods of prenatal testing that do not involve sex determination, such as ultrasound and blood tests.

Q9: Suggest some methods to assist infertile couples to have children.

Answer:

Couples who try to conceive but are unable to, despite having unprotected intercourse, can be diagnosed with infertility. This is often caused by a variety of factors such as congenital diseases, psychological and immunological issues, and physical problems. Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) offer couples struggling with infertility the possibility of having children. These treatments involve using special techniques to give infertile couples the chance to experience parenthood. There are several methods available to assist infertile couples in having children. Here are some of the options:

  1. In vitro fertilization (IVF): The process of In vitro fertilisation – Embryo transfer (IVF – ET) involves the extraction of the donor’s egg, which is then fertilised in a sterile culture medium using the donor’s sperm. The resulting embryo is then transferred back to the donor’s body for further development. IVF – ET is of two types: IUT & ZIFT. IUT (intra uterine transfer): Upon fertilisation, the egg eventually becomes 8-celled (blastomere) and is then transferred to the fallopian tube to proceed in its developmental stages.
  2. ZIFT (zygote intrafallopian transfer): This particular technique involves implanting a fertilised egg that has already developed into a 32-cell stage, which is much more advanced than the 8-cell blastomere stage. It then gets transferred to the uterus so it can continue developing.
  3. Gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT): This process involves obtaining unfertilised eggs and sperm which then get put into the fallopian tube of a woman who can’t produce eggs but can provide an environment for fertilisation & development. This method has a success rate of approximately 30%.
  4. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI): ICSI is a procedure conducted in a lab that involves injecting sperm directly into an ovum to create an embryo. Its success rate is usually around 60-70%, making it quite successful.
  5. Surrogacy: This involves having another woman carry and give birth to the baby for the couple.
  6. Adoption: This involves choosing to raise a child who is not biologically related to the couple.It’s important for couples to discuss their options with a fertility specialist and consider their personal preferences, as well as their medical history and financial situation.

Q10: What are the measures one has to take to prevent contracting STDs?

Answer:

Preventing the spread of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) is essential for maintaining sexual health. Here are some measures one can take to prevent contracting STDs:

  1. Abstinence: The only sure way to prevent STDs is to abstain from sexual activity.
  2. Condoms: Using condoms during sexual activity can reduce the risk of contracting STDs, but they are not 100% effective.
  3. Regular testing: Regular testing for STDs is important, especially if you are sexually active with multiple partners.
  4. Vaccines: Vaccines are available for certain STDs, such as human papillomavirus (HPV) and hepatitis B.
  5. Communication: Open and honest communication with sexual partners is important to ensure that both parties are aware of any risks and taking appropriate precautions.
  6. Limiting sexual partners: Limiting the number of sexual partners you have can reduce the risk of contracting STDs.
  7. Avoiding sharing personal items: Avoiding sharing personal items such as towels or razors can help prevent the spread of STDs.

Q11: State True/False with an explanation

  1. Abortions could happen spontaneously too.
  2. Infertility is defined as the inability to produce viable offspring and is always due to abnormalities/defects in the female partner.
  3. Complete lactation could help as a natural method of contraception.
  4. Creating awareness about sex-related aspects is an effective method to improve the reproductive health of people.

Answer: 

  1. True. In some cases, abortions can happen involuntarily due to internal factors like incompatibility.
  2. False. It is due to abnormalities/defects in either male or female or both partners.
  3. True. Although it is only applicable for a period of up to six months postpartum, this rule still holds true.
  4. True. Raising awareness about sexual & reproductive health can help clear away the misunderstandings and false beliefs about such topics. This is an important step towards a healthier society.

Q12: Correct the Following Statements:

  1. Surgical methods of contraception prevent gamete formation.
  2. All sexually transmitted diseases are completely curable.
  3. Oral pills are very popular contraceptives among rural women.
  4. In E. T. techniques, embryos are always transferred into the uterus

Answer: 

  1. Contraceptive surgery is a reliable way to prevent pregnancy by obstructing the transfer of eggs or sperm, thus preventing fertilization.
  2. Early detection and proper treatment are the keys to curing most STD diseases – excluding hepatitis B, genital herpes, and HIV infections. By catching the symptoms early and getting appropriate medical help, you can drastically reduce your risk of suffering from any type of STD.
  3. Educated urban women have chosen to use oral contraceptives as one of their preferred methods of contraception. This has become a very popular option among them.
  4. In E.T. treatments, embryos having 8 cells are placed in the fallopian tube & those with more than 8 cells into the uterus.

Key Features of NCERT Solutions Class 12 Biology Chapter 3 Reproductive Health

  • They enhance the conceptual knowledge of the students.
  • Clear and Comprehensible Content.
  • Aid in Competitive Exam Preparation.
  • The answers are provided by Top subject experts.
  • Readily available and easily accessible.

Also Check:

FAQs on Reproductive Health Class 12 Solution

Q1. What is the name of chapter 3 of NCERT Class 12 Biology?

Class 12 Biology Chapter 3 is Reproductive Health which is about the reproductive health of human beings and why it is important.

Q2. Where can I find NCERT solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 3?

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 3 can be found on various online platforms such as the official NCERT website, GeeksForGeeks, and more.

Q3. Why are NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 3 beneficial for the students?

The benefits of using the NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology Chapter 3 are:

  1. Completely solved answers for all the questions present in the NCERT textbook are available in PDF format.
  2. Simple and easy-to-understand language is used to make learning fun for the students.
  3. Top Subject matter experts prepare the solutions after conducting vast research on each concept.
  4. The solutions not only help students with their board exam preparation but also for various competitive exams like JEE, NEET, etc.

Q4. What types of questions are present in Chapter 3 of NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology?

Chapter 3 of NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology includes various question types:

1. True/False Questions with Explanations

2. Short Answer Questions

3. Long Answer Questions

4. Very Long Answer Questions

5. Statement Correction Exercises

Q5. List out the topics present in Chapter 4 of NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology.

Chapter 4 of NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology covers the following topics:

1. Reproductive Health: Issues and Strategies

2. Population Explosion and Birth Control

3. Medical Termination of Pregnancy

4. Sexually Transmitted Diseases

5. Infertility

Q6. How can students benefit from the CBSE Free PDF Download available through online free resources for their studies?

Students can benefit significantly from the CBSE Free PDF Download available through online free resources by accessing study materials, textbooks, and other educational resources at no cost. These PDFs can serve as valuable supplements to their learning, enabling them to review, practice, and deepen their understanding of various subjects and topics. It offers a convenient and accessible way to study and prepare for exams without the need for physical textbooks, making it a cost-effective and flexible option for students seeking quality educational materials.



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