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National Population Policy 2000

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National Population Policy was formulated in the year 2000 and a similar program was also launched in 1952 to reaffirm the Government’s commitment towards the overall economic and social development, to improve the quality of life and enhance the well-being of people by providing them with proper opportunities and choices to become a valuable asset in society. This program was regularly reviewed through annual review meetings, supportive supervision visits, etc under the observation of the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare.

The basic objective of the National Population Policy 2000 is to address the health care infrastructure, and health personnel, and to provide integrated service delivery for basic reproductive and child health care and the long-term aim of NPP 2020 is to achieve a stable population by 2045 with social development, sustainable economic growth, and environmental protection.

Some of the Important features of NPP 2000:

1. Decentralized for Programme Implementation:

By the 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendments Act, 1992, Govt. gave health, family welfare, and education-related responsibility to village panchayats and municipalities.  In the context of the NPP 2000, the Panchayati Raj institutions are considered as an important means of furthering decentralized programmes. In order to realize their potential, govt gave them strengthening by the further delegation of administrative and financial powers, including powers of resource mobilization. Hence, 33 percent of elected panchayat seats are reserved for women, to promote a gender-sensitive, multi-sectoral agenda for population stabilization. In this way, Govt. further focuses on the need-based, socio-demographic plans at the village level, aimed at identifying and providing responsive, people-centered, basic child health care. Now, panchayats and municipalities also perform very important roles in bringing about reductions in infant and maternal mortality, compulsory registration of births, deaths, etc. 

2. Easy to access at Village Level:

The efforts at population stabilization will work effectively if we direct an integrated package of essential services at below district levels, i.e. village, and household levels particularly for remote, inaccessible, or sparsely populated regions of India, like desert areas, tribal areas, hilly and forested areas, etc. Such a flexible approach, by extending basic reproductive and child health care through mobile clinics and counseling services govt tried to resolve unmet needs. 

3. Women’s Empowerment for Improved Health and Nutrition: 

Frequent pregnancies, malnutrition, unsafe abortions, are all serious threats to a healthy society, and these all combined to keep the maternal mortality ratio in India among the highest globally. Besides this, discriminatory childcare leads to malnutrition and impaired physical development of the newborn baby. In order to provide basic health services especially in rural areas, Govt felt the requirement of a one-stop solution, integrated and coordinated service delivery, which should be provided at village levels, for basic reproductive and child health services, and for this, Govt. increased the number of trained birth attendants by Empowering Women through proper training. 

4. Focus on Child Health care system:

Infant mortality is one of the most sensitive indicators of human development. Morbidity among newborn babies happens due to mainly premature birth, low birth weight, inadequate care, asphyxia during birth, acute respiratory infections, malnutrition, etc. To address neo-natal care, Govt. set up a National Technical Committee, to monitor the implementation at the grassroots developments in the fields of perinatology and neonatology. Besides this, Govt. also, provides the essential equipment for newborn babies and also launch various programs for the update of skills of trained birth attendants to improve newborn care practices to reduce the risks of hypothermia and infection. 

5. Involved Men’s participation:

Before this, population programs have tended to exclude menfolk, whereas men play a critical role in determining the education and employment of their family members, family welfare services for women and children, age at marriage, access to and utilization of health, etc. By the National Population Policy, 2000 Govt. tried all the necessary steps for the active involvement of men who is responsible for family planning, supporting contraceptive use, helping pregnant women stay healthy, avoiding delays in seeking the care of newborn baby, etc.

6. Special care for Tribal Communities, Hill and remote areas

Generally, populations in low-density areas like the Hilly area, desert regions, and remote rural areas do not have adequate access to affordable health care services. Due to poor nutrition, low levels of literacy, coupled with a high infant, child, and maternal mortality tribal communities need special attention in terms of basic health, and reproductive and child health services. The special care of such areas, needs to be addressed include the provision of mobile clinics, and counseling on infertility and a regular supply of standardized medication will be included.

7. Collaboration With and Commitments from NGOs and the Private Sector:

A national effort to reach out to households cannot be sustained by the government alone that’s why govt. gave importance to various Partnerships of non-government voluntary organizations, the private corporate sector, and the various communities. Triggered by rising incomes and finance, private health care has grown significantly, with an impressive pool of expertise and management skills, private health care currently accounts for nearly 75 percent of health care expenditures. 

8. Campaigns to Raise Awareness:

Govt started various campaigns with clear messages of family welfare via artists, doctors, nurses, local midwives, women’s organizations, etc. On the model of the total literacy campaigns govt. focused and disseminated everywhere, including the remote corners of the country, and in local dialects to ensure that the messages are effectively conveyed.

Last Updated : 30 Nov, 2021
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