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N digit numbers having difference between the first and last digits as K
  • Last Updated : 15 Dec, 2020

Given two integer N and K, the task is to print all positive numbers made up of N digits whose difference between the first and last digits equal to K.

Examples: 

Input: N = 2, K = 0
Output: 11, 22, 33, 44, 55, 66, 77, 88, 99

Input: N = 2, K = 9
Output: 90

Approach: The idea is to generate all possible 1-digit numbers to N-digit numbers using recursion and check if the difference between the first and the last digit of that number is equal to K or not. Below are the steps: 



  1. Generate all possible numbers with length 1.
  2. At each step, keep on adding digits to the number until the length of the number becomes N.
  3. When the length of the number becomes equal to N, calculate the difference between the first and last digit of the number, and check if the difference is equal to N or not. If found to be true, print that number and proceed to generate the next number.

Below is the implementation of the above approach:

C++




// C++ program for the above approach
 
#include <bits/stdc++.h>
using namespace std;
 
// Function to store and check the
// difference of digits
void findNumbers(string st, vector<int>& result,
                 int prev, int n, int K)
{
    // Base Case
    if (st.length() == n) {
        result.push_back(stoi(st));
        return;
    }
 
    // Last digit of the number to
    // check the difference from the
    // first digit
    if (st.size() == n - 1) {
 
        // Condition to avoid
        // repeated values
        if (prev - K >= 0) {
 
            string pt = "";
 
            // Update the string pt
            pt += prev - K + 48;
 
            // Recursive Call
            findNumbers(st + pt, result,
                        prev - K, n, K);
        }
 
        if (K != 0 && prev + K < 10) {
 
            string pt = "";
 
            // Update the string pt
            pt += prev + K + 48;
 
            // Recursive Call
            findNumbers(st + pt, result,
                        prev + K, n, K);
        }
    }
 
    // Any number can come in between
    // first and last except the zero
    else {
        for (int j = 1; j <= 9; j++) {
 
            string pt = "";
            pt += j + 48;
 
            // Recursive Call
            findNumbers(st + pt, result,
                        prev, n, K);
        }
    }
}
 
// Function to place digit of the number
vector<int> numDifference(int N, int K)
{
    vector<int> res;
    string st = "";
 
    // When N is 1 and K > 0, then the
    // single number will be the first
    // and last digit it cannot have
    // difference greater than 0
    if (N == 1 && K == 0) {
        res.push_back(0);
    }
 
    else if (N == 1 && K > 0) {
        return res;
    }
 
    // This loop place the digit at the
    // starting
    for (int i = 1; i < 10; i++) {
 
        string temp = "";
        temp += 48 + i;
 
        // Recursive Call
        findNumbers(st + temp, res, i, N, K);
        st = "";
    }
 
    return res;
}
 
void numDifferenceUtil(int N, int K)
{
 
    // Vector to store results
    vector<int> res;
 
    // Generate all the resultant number
    res = numDifference(N, K);
 
    // Print the result
    for (int i = 0; i < res.size(); i++) {
        cout << res[i] << " ";
    }
}
 
// Driver Code
int main()
{
    int N = 2, K = 9;
 
    // Function Call
    numDifferenceUtil(N, K);
 
    return 0;
}

Java




// Java program for the above approach
import java.util.*;
 
@SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
class GFG{
     
// Function to store and check the
// difference of digits
static void findNumbers(String st, ArrayList result,
                        int prev, int n, int K)
{
     
    // Base Case
    if (st.length() == n)
    {
        result.add(Integer.parseInt(st));
        return;
    }
     
    // Last digit of the number to
    // check the difference from the
    // first digit
    if (st.length() == n - 1)
    {
         
        // Condition to avoid
        // repeated values
        if (prev - K >= 0)
        {
            String pt = "";
             
            // Update the String pt
            pt += (char)(prev - K + 48);
             
            // Recursive Call
            findNumbers(st + pt, result,
                      prev - K, n, K);
        }
   
        if (K != 0 && prev + K < 10)
        {
            String pt = "";
             
            // Update the String pt
            pt += (char)(prev + K + 48);
   
            // Recursive Call
            findNumbers(st + pt, result,
                      prev + K, n, K);
        }
    }
   
    // Any number can come in between
    // first and last except the zero
    else
    {
        for(int j = 1; j <= 9; j++)
        {
            String pt = "";
            pt += (char)(j + 48);
   
            // Recursive Call
            findNumbers(st + pt, result,
                        prev, n, K);
        }
    }
}
  
// Function to place digit of the number
static ArrayList numDifference(int N, int K)
{
    ArrayList res = new ArrayList();
     
    String st = "";
     
    // When N is 1 and K > 0, then the
    // single number will be the first
    // and last digit it cannot have
    // difference greater than 0
    if (N == 1 && K == 0)
    {
        res.add(0);
    }
     
    else if (N == 1 && K > 0)
    {
        return res;
    }
   
    // This loop place the digit at the
    // starting
    for(int i = 1; i < 10; i++)
    {
        String temp = "";
        temp += (char)(48 + i);
         
        // Recursive Call
        findNumbers(st + temp, res, i, N, K);
        st = "";
    }
    return res;
}
 
static void numDifferenceUtil(int N, int K)
{
     
    // Vector to store results
    ArrayList res = new ArrayList();
     
    // Generate all the resultant number
    res = numDifference(N, K);
     
    // Print the result
    for(int i = 0; i < res.size(); i++)
    {
        System.out.print(res.get(i) + " ");
    }
}
 
// Driver Code
public static void main(String []args)
{
    int N = 2, K = 9;
     
    // Function Call
    numDifferenceUtil(N, K);
}
}
 
// This code is contributed by pratham76

Python3




# Python3 program for
# the above approach
 
# Function to store and
# check the difference
# of digits
result = []
def findNumbers(st, prev,
                n, K):
   
    global result
     
    # Base Case
    if (len(st) == n):
        result.append(int(st))
        return
 
    # Last digit of the number to
    # check the difference from the
    # first digit
    if(len(st) == n - 1):
       
        # Condition to avoid
        # repeated values
        if (prev - K >= 0):
            pt = ""
 
            # Update the string pt
            pt += prev - K + 48
 
            # Recursive Call
            findNumbers(st + pt,
                        prev - K,
                        n, K)
 
        if (K != 0 and
            prev + K < 10):
            pt = ""
 
            # Update the string pt
            pt += prev + K + 48
 
            # Recursive Call
            findNumbers(st + pt,
                        prev + K,
                        n, K)
 
    # Any number can come in between
    # first and last except the zero
    else:
        for j in range(1, 10, 1):
            pt = ""
            pt += j + 48
 
            # Recursive Call
            findNumbers(st + pt,
                        prev, n, K)
 
# Function to place digit
# of the number
def numDifference(N,K):
    global result
    st = ""
     
    # When N is 1 and K > 0,
    # then the single number
    # will be the first and
    # last digit it cannot have
    # difference greater than 0
    if (N == 1 and K == 0):
        result.append(0)
 
    elif(N == 1 and K > 0):
        return result
 
    # This loop place the
    # digit at the starting
    for i in range(1, 10, 1):
        temp = ""
        temp += str(48 + i)
 
        # Recursive Call
        findNumbers(st + temp,
                    i, N, K)
        st = ""
    return result
 
def numDifferenceUtil(N, K):
   
    # Vector to store results
    res = []
 
    # Generate all the
    # resultant number
    res = numDifference(N, K)
 
    # Print the result
    for i in range(1, len(res)):
        print(res[i] + 40,
              end = " ")
        break
 
# Driver Code
if __name__ == '__main__':
   
    N = 2
    K = 9
     
    # Function Call
    numDifferenceUtil(N, K)
     
# This code is contributed by bgangwar59

C#




// C# program for the above approach
 
using System;
using System.Collections;
using System.Collections.Generic;
 
class GFG
{
  
// Function to store and check the
// difference of digits
static void findNumbers(string st, ArrayList result,
                 int prev, int n, int K)
{
    // Base Case
    if (st.Length == n) {
        result.Add(Int32.Parse(st));
        return;
     }
      
    // Last digit of the number to
    // check the difference from the
    // first digit
    if (st.Length == n - 1) {
  
        // Condition to avoid
        // repeated values
        if (prev - K >= 0) {
  
            string pt = "";
  
            // Update the string pt
            pt += (char)(prev - K + 48);
  
            // Recursive Call
            findNumbers(st + pt, result,
                        prev - K, n, K);
        }
  
        if (K != 0 && prev + K < 10) {
  
            string pt = "";
  
            // Update the string pt
            pt += (char)(prev + K + 48);
  
            // Recursive Call
            findNumbers(st + pt, result,
                        prev + K, n, K);
        }
    }
  
    // Any number can come in between
    // first and last except the zero
    else {
        for (int j = 1; j <= 9; j++) {
  
            string pt = "";
            pt += (char)(j + 48);
  
            // Recursive Call
            findNumbers(st + pt, result,
                        prev, n, K);
        }
    }
}
 
  
// Function to place digit of the number
static ArrayList numDifference(int N, int K)
{
    ArrayList res=new ArrayList();
     
    string st = "";
  
    // When N is 1 and K > 0, then the
    // single number will be the first
    // and last digit it cannot have
    // difference greater than 0
    if (N == 1 && K == 0) {
        res.Add(0);
    }
  
    else if (N == 1 && K > 0) {
        return res;
    }
  
    // This loop place the digit at the
    // starting
    for (int i = 1; i < 10; i++) {
  
        string temp = "";
        temp += (char)(48 + i);
  
        // Recursive Call
        findNumbers(st + temp, res, i, N, K);
        st = "";
    }
  
    return res;
}
  
static void numDifferenceUtil(int N, int K)
{
  
    // Vector to store results
    ArrayList res=new ArrayList();
  
    // Generate all the resultant number
    res = numDifference(N, K);
  
    // Print the result
    for (int i = 0; i < res.Count; i++) {
        Console.Write(res[i]+" ");
    }
}
  
// Driver Code
public static void Main(string []args)
{
    int N = 2, K = 9;
  
    // Function Call
    numDifferenceUtil(N, K);
     
}
}
 
// This code is contributed by rutvik_56
Output: 
90

 

Time Complexity: O(2N
Auxiliary Space: O(N)

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