Multithreaded Servers in Java
Prerequisites: Socket Programming in Java
Multithreaded Server: A server having more than one thread is known as Multithreaded Server. When a client sends the request, a thread is generated through which a user can communicate with the server. We need to generate multiple threads to accept multiple requests from multiple clients at the same time.
Advantages of Multithreaded Server:
- Quick and Efficient: Multithreaded server could respond efficiently and quickly to the increasing client queries quickly.
- Waiting time for users decreases: In a single-threaded server, other users had to wait until the running process gets completed but in multithreaded servers, all users can get a response at a single time so no user has to wait for other processes to finish.
- Threads are independent of each other: There is no relation between any two threads. When a client is connected a new thread is generated every time.
- The issue in one thread does not affect other threads: If any error occurs in any of the threads then no other thread is disturbed, all other processes keep running normally. In a single-threaded server, every other client had to wait if any problem occurs in the thread.
Disadvantages of Multithreaded Server:
- Complicated Code: It is difficult to write the code of the multithreaded server. These programs can not be created easily
- Debugging is difficult: Analyzing the main reason and origin of the error is difficult.
We create two java files, Client.java and Server.java. Client file contains only one class Client (for creating a client). Server file has two classes, Server(creates a server) and ClientHandler(handles clients using multithreading).
Client-Side Program: A client can communicate with a server using this code. This involves
- Establish a Socket Connection
Server-Side Program: When a new client is connected, and he sends the message to the server.
1. Server class: The steps involved on the server side are similar to the article Socket Programming in Java with a slight change to create the thread object after obtaining the streams and port number.
- Establishing the Connection: Server socket object is initialized and inside a while loop a socket object continuously accepts an incoming connection.
- Obtaining the Streams: The inputstream object and outputstream object is extracted from the current requests’ socket object.
- Creating a handler object: After obtaining the streams and port number, a new clientHandler object (the above class) is created with these parameters.
- Invoking the start() method: The start() method is invoked on this newly created thread object.
2. ClientHandler class: As we will be using separate threads for each request, let’s understand the working and implementation of the ClientHandler class implementing Runnable. An object of this class acts as a Runnable target for a new thread.
- First, this class implements Runnable interface so that it can be passed as a Runnable target while creating a new Thread.
- Secondly, the constructor of this class takes a parameter, which can uniquely identify any incoming request, i.e. a Socket.
- Inside the run() method of this class, it reads the client’s message and replies.
- Compile both Client and Server programs.
- Run the server first and then the Client.
Attention reader! Don’t stop learning now. Get hold of all the important Java Foundation and Collections concepts with the Fundamentals of Java and Java Collections Course at a student-friendly price and become industry ready. To complete your preparation from learning a language to DS Algo and many more, please refer Complete Interview Preparation Course.