Multiply Large Numbers using Grid Method

Given two large numbers A and B, the task is to find the product of these two numbers using Grid Method.

Examples:

Input: A = 23, B = 15
Output: 345



Input: A = 321, B = 69
Output: 22149

Approach:

  • Create 2D Array of N Rows and M columns where N is number of digit in first number and M is number of digit in second number.
  • Multiply each element of row with each element of column
  • Total Number of Diagonal = Row + Columns – 1
    = 2 + 2 -1
    = 3

  • Create 1D Array which contains the addition of elements in each diagonal
    d3 = 2
    d2 = 13
    d1 = 15

    Diagonal sum[] = {2, 13, 15}
    output = “”
    total = 0
    i = DiagonalSum.length – 1

  • Repeat in reverse order of insertion except for first element in Diagonal Sum[] Array
    total = total + DiagonalSum[i]. If total contain more than single digit then total = all digit from total except unit place digit. output = unit_place_digit + output else total = 0

  • total = total + DiagonalSum[0]
    output = total + output

Below is the implementation of the above approach:

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// Java program to multiply Large
// numbers using the grid method
  
class GFG {
  
    // Function to return the multiplication of a and b
    public static String multiply(String a, String b)
    {
        boolean flag1 = false;
        boolean flag2 = false;
        a = a.trim();
        b = b.trim();
  
        // To check whether numbers are
        // negative or positive
        if (a.charAt(0) == '-') {
            a = a.replace("-", "");
            flag1 = true;
        }
        if (b.charAt(0) == '-') {
            b = b.replace("-", "");
            flag2 = true;
        }
  
        // To store the result of
        // multiplication
        String out = "";
  
        // To create matrix(Grid) of row * column
        int row = a.length();
        int column = b.length();
        int[][] c = new int[row][column];
        for (int i = 0; i < row; i++) {
            for (int j = 0; j < column; j++) {
                int n1
                    = Character
                          .getNumericValue(
                              a.charAt(i));
                int n2
                    = Character
                          .getNumericValue(
                              b.charAt(j));
                c[i][j] = n1 * n2;
            }
        }
  
        // To create 1D array of (row+column-1) size
        // which is equal to total number
        // of diagonal in matrix
        int[] sum = new int[row + column - 1];
        int m = 0;
  
        // To add elements of each diagonals
        for (int i = 0; i < row; i++) {
            int k = i;
            int add = 0;
  
            for (int j = 0; j < column && k >= 0; j++, k--) {
                add = add + c[k][j];
            }
            sum[m] = add;
            m = m + 1;
        }
        for (int k = 1; k < column; k++) {
            int i = row - 1;
            int j = k;
            int add = 0;
            while (j < column && i >= 0) {
                add = add + c[i][j];
                j = j + 1;
                i = i - 1;
            }
            sum[m] = add;
            m = m + 1;
        }
  
        // To check both numbers are not
        // single digit number
        if (sum.length != 1) {
  
            String temp
                = Integer
                      .toString(
                          sum[sum.length - 1]);
            int t = 0;
  
            // Repeat element in "sum" Array
            // in reverse order
            for (int n = sum.length - 1; n >= 1; n--) {
  
                // Add element with result "t"
                t = t + sum[n];
  
                // Convert integer element into String
                // which is sum of all elements
                // of particular diagonal
                temp = Integer.toString(t);
                if (temp.length() > 1) {
  
                    // If the number contains more than a single-digit
                    // then copy all the digit into "temp"
                    // as String except for the unit place digit
                    String str = temp.substring(0, temp.length() - 1);
                    t = Integer.parseInt(str);
                }
                else {
                    t = 0;
                }
  
                // Concat unit place digit at the
                // beginning of String "out"
                out = temp.charAt(temp.length() - 1) + out;
            }
  
            // Add first element with result "t"
            t = t + sum[0];
            temp = Integer.toString(t);
            out = temp + out;
        }
        else {
            out = out + sum[0];
        }
  
        StringBuffer s = new StringBuffer(out);
  
        // To remove Zero's from the beginning
        // of the multiplication result
        for (int i = 0; i < s.length() - 1; i++) {
            if (s.charAt(i) == '0') {
                s.deleteCharAt(i);
                i = i - 1;
            }
            else {
                break;
            }
        }
        out = s.toString();
  
        // Check if the result of multiplication
        // operation is zero
        if (!out.equals("0")) {
  
            // If one of two numbers is negative then
            // assign minus sign to the result of
            // multiplication operation
            if (flag1 == true && flag2 == false) {
                out = "-" + out;
            }
            else if (flag2 == true && flag1 == false) {
                out = "-" + out;
            }
        }
        return out;
    }
  
    // Driver code
    public static void main(String args[])
    {
        String str1 = "123456789";
        String str2 = "987654321";
        System.out.println(multiply(str1, str2));
  
        str1 = "1235421415454545454545454544";
        str2 = "1714546546546545454544548544544545";
        System.out.println(multiply(str1, str2));
    }
}

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Output:

121932631112635269
2118187521397235888154583183918321221520083884298838480662480



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