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Multiply a single digit number in place to a number represented as a Linked List

  • Last Updated : 30 Aug, 2021

Given a linked list of N nodes where each node represents digits of a number and a single-digit number M, the task is to multiply the list by M in-place and print the resulting linked list.

Examples:

Input: Linked list: 1 → 2 → 7 → 3 → NULL, M = 3
Output: 3 → 8 → 1 → 9 → NULL
Explanation: The given linked list represents the number 1273. Multiplying 1273 with 3 = 1273*3 = 3819. Hence, the resulting linked list is 
 3 → 8 → 1 → 9 → NULL

Input: Linked list: 9 → 9 → 9 → NULL, M = 2 
Output: 1 → 9 → 9 → 8 → NULL
Explanation: The given linked list represents the number 999. Multiplying 999 with 2 = 999*2 = 1998. Hence, the resulting linked list is 
1 → 9 → 9 → 8 → NULL

Approach: Since we are allowed to reverse the LL and add at most 1 extra node to it, the idea to solve this problem is to first reverse the linked list. Then, traverse the linked list and start multiplying M with every node adding the carry generated and updating the carry after each multiplication step. Again, reverse the modified linked list and print the resulting list.



Below is the implementation of the above approach:

C++14




// C++ program for the above approach
#include <bits/stdc++.h>
using namespace std;
 
// Node of a Linked List
class Node {
public:
    int data;
    Node* next;
};
 
// Function to create a new
// node with given data
Node* newNode(int data)
{
    // Initialize new node
    Node* new_node = new Node;
 
    // Set the data field of the node
    new_node->data = data;
    new_node->next = NULL;
 
    // Return the new node
    return new_node;
}
 
// Function to reverse the linked list
Node* reverse(Node* head)
{
    Node* prev = NULL;
    Node* current = head;
    Node* next;
 
    // Traverse until curr!=null
    while (current != NULL) {
        next = current->next;
        current->next = prev;
        prev = current;
        current = next;
    }
 
    // Return the head of the
    // reversed linked list
    return prev;
}
 
// Utility function to multiply a single digit
// to a linked list
Node* multiplyHelp(Node* head, int M)
{
    // Store the head of list
    Node* res = head;
 
    // Stores the address of previous node
    Node* prev = NULL;
 
    // Initially set carry as 0 and product as 1
    int carry = 0, product = 1;
 
    while (head != NULL) {
 
        // Multiply M with each digit
        product = head->data * M;
 
        // Add carry to product if carry exist
        product += carry;
 
        // Update carry for next calculation
        carry = product / 10;
 
        // Update the value of each nodes
        head->data = product % 10;
 
        // Move head and temp pointers to next nodes
        prev = head;
        head = head->next;
    }
 
    // If some carry is still there,
    // add a new node to list
    if (carry > 0)
        prev->next = newNode(carry);
 
    // Return head of the resultant list
    return res;
}
 
// Function to multiply a single digit
// to a linked list
Node* multiply(Node* head, int M)
{
    // Reverse linked list
    head = reverse(head);
 
    // Multiply M from left to right of reversed list
    head = multiplyHelp(head, M);
 
    // Reverse the modified list and return its head
    return reverse(head);
}
 
// Function to print the linked list
void printList(Node* node)
{
    while (node != NULL) {
        cout << node->data;
        node = node->next;
    }
}
 
// Driver Code
int main()
{
    // Given Input list: 1->2->7->3
    Node* head = newNode(1);
    head->next = newNode(2);
    head->next->next = newNode(7);
    head->next->next->next = newNode(3);
    int M = 3;
 
    // Function Call
    head = multiply(head, M);
 
    // Print resultant list
    printList(head);
 
    return 0;
}

Java




// Java program for the above approach
import java.util.*;
 
class GFG {
 
  // Node of a Linked List
  static class Node {
    int data;
    Node next;
  };
 
  // Function to create a new
  // node with given data
  static Node newNode(int data)
  {
     
    // Initialize new node
    Node new_node = new Node();
 
    // Set the data field of the node
    new_node.data = data;
    new_node.next = null;
 
    // Return the new node
    return new_node;
  }
 
  // Function to reverse the linked list
  static Node reverse(Node head) {
    Node prev = null;
    Node current = head;
    Node next;
 
    // Traverse until curr!=null
    while (current != null) {
      next = current.next;
      current.next = prev;
      prev = current;
      current = next;
    }
 
    // Return the head of the
    // reversed linked list
    return prev;
  }
 
  // Utility function to multiply a single digit
  // to a linked list
  static Node multiplyHelp(Node head, int M) {
    // Store the head of list
    Node res = head;
 
    // Stores the address of previous node
    Node prev = null;
 
    // Initially set carry as 0 and product as 1
    int carry = 0, product = 1;
 
    while (head != null) {
 
      // Multiply M with each digit
      product = head.data * M;
 
      // Add carry to product if carry exist
      product += carry;
 
      // Update carry for next calculation
      carry = product / 10;
 
      // Update the value of each nodes
      head.data = product % 10;
 
      // Move head and temp pointers to next nodes
      prev = head;
      head = head.next;
    }
 
    // If some carry is still there,
    // add a new node to list
    if (carry > 0)
      prev.next = newNode(carry);
 
    // Return head of the resultant list
    return res;
  }
 
  // Function to multiply a single digit
  // to a linked list
  static Node multiply(Node head, int M)
  {
     
    // Reverse linked list
    head = reverse(head);
 
    // Multiply M from left to right of reversed list
    head = multiplyHelp(head, M);
 
    // Reverse the modified list and return its head
    return reverse(head);
  }
 
  // Function to print the linked list
  static void printList(Node node) {
    while (node != null) {
      System.out.print(node.data);
      node = node.next;
    }
  }
 
  // Driver Code
  public static void main(String[] args)
  {
     
    // Given Input list: 1.2.7.3
    Node head = newNode(1);
    head.next = newNode(2);
    head.next.next = newNode(7);
    head.next.next.next = newNode(3);
    int M = 3;
 
    // Function Call
    head = multiply(head, M);
 
    // Print resultant list
    printList(head);
 
  }
}
 
// This code contributed by gauravrajput1

C#




// C# program for the above approach
using System;
 
public class GFG {
 
  // Node of a Linked List
  class Node {
    public int data;
    public Node next;
  };
 
  // Function to create a new
  // node with given data
  static Node newNode(int data)
  {
     
    // Initialize new node
    Node new_node = new Node();
 
    // Set the data field of the node
    new_node.data = data;
    new_node.next = null;
 
    // Return the new node
    return new_node;
  }
 
  // Function to reverse the linked list
  static Node reverse(Node head) {
    Node prev = null;
    Node current = head;
    Node next;
 
    // Traverse until curr!=null
    while (current != null) {
      next = current.next;
      current.next = prev;
      prev = current;
      current = next;
    }
 
    // Return the head of the
    // reversed linked list
    return prev;
  }
 
  // Utility function to multiply a single digit
  // to a linked list
  static Node multiplyHelp(Node head, int M) {
    // Store the head of list
    Node res = head;
 
    // Stores the address of previous node
    Node prev = null;
 
    // Initially set carry as 0 and product as 1
    int carry = 0, product = 1;
 
    while (head != null) {
 
      // Multiply M with each digit
      product = head.data * M;
 
      // Add carry to product if carry exist
      product += carry;
 
      // Update carry for next calculation
      carry = product / 10;
 
      // Update the value of each nodes
      head.data = product % 10;
 
      // Move head and temp pointers to next nodes
      prev = head;
      head = head.next;
    }
 
    // If some carry is still there,
    // add a new node to list
    if (carry > 0)
      prev.next = newNode(carry);
 
    // Return head of the resultant list
    return res;
  }
 
  // Function to multiply a single digit
  // to a linked list
  static Node multiply(Node head, int M)
  {
     
    // Reverse linked list
    head = reverse(head);
 
    // Multiply M from left to right of reversed list
    head = multiplyHelp(head, M);
 
    // Reverse the modified list and return its head
    return reverse(head);
  }
 
  // Function to print the linked list
  static void printList(Node node) {
    while (node != null) {
      Console.Write(node.data);
      node = node.next;
    }
  }
 
  // Driver Code
  public static void Main(String[] args)
  {
     
    // Given Input list: 1.2.7.3
    Node head = newNode(1);
    head.next = newNode(2);
    head.next.next = newNode(7);
    head.next.next.next = newNode(3);
    int M = 3;
 
    // Function Call
    head = multiply(head, M);
 
    // Print resultant list
    printList(head);
 
  }
}
 
// This code contributed by Princi Singh

Javascript




<script>
// javascript program for the above approach
 
 // Node of a Linked List
class Node {
    constructor() {
        this.data = 0;
        this.next = null;
    }
}
 
  // Function to create a new
  // node with given data
  function newNode(data)
  {
     
    // Initialize new node
     var new_node = new Node();
 
    // Set the data field of the node
    new_node.data = data;
    new_node.next = null;
 
    // Return the new node
    return new_node;
  }
 
  // Function to reverse the linked list
  function reverse(head) {
    var prev = null;
    var current = head;
    var next;
 
    // Traverse until curr!=null
    while (current != null) {
      next = current.next;
      current.next = prev;
      prev = current;
      current = next;
    }
 
    // Return the head of the
    // reversed linked list
    return prev;
  }
 
  // Utility function to multiply a single digit
  // to a linked list
  function multiplyHelp(head , M) {
    // Store the head of list
    var res = head;
 
    // Stores the address of previous node
    var prev = null;
 
    // Initially set carry as 0 and product as 1
    var carry = 0, product = 1;
 
    while (head != null) {
 
      // Multiply M with each digit
      product = head.data * M;
 
      // Add carry to product if carry exist
      product += carry;
 
      // Update carry for next calculation
      carry = parseInt(product / 10);
 
      // Update the value of each nodes
      head.data = product % 10;
 
      // Move head and temp pointers to next nodes
      prev = head;
      head = head.next;
    }
 
    // If some carry is still there,
    // add a new node to list
    if (carry > 0)
      prev.next = newNode(carry);
 
    // Return head of the resultant list
    return res;
  }
 
  // Function to multiply a single digit
  // to a linked list
  function multiply(head , M)
  {
     
    // Reverse linked list
    head = reverse(head);
 
    // Multiply M from left to right of reversed list
    head = multiplyHelp(head, M);
 
    // Reverse the modified list and return its head
    return reverse(head);
  }
 
  // Function to prvar the linked list
  function printList(node) {
    while (node != null) {
      document.write(node.data);
      node = node.next;
    }
  }
 
  // Driver Code
 
    // Given Input list: 1.2.7.3
    var head = newNode(1);
    head.next = newNode(2);
    head.next.next = newNode(7);
    head.next.next.next = newNode(3);
    var M = 3;
 
    // Function Call
    head = multiply(head, M);
 
    // Prvar resultant list
    printList(head);
 
// This code is contributed by gauravrajput1
</script>
Output
3819

Time Complexity: O(N)
Auxiliary Space: O(1)

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