In Scala, Monads is a construction which performs successive calculations. It is an object which covers the other object. It is worth noting that here, the output of an operation at some step is an input to another computations, which is a parent to the recent step of the program stated. Monad is neither a class nor a trait, it is a concept. The maximum collections of the Scala are Monads but not all the Monads are collections, there are several Monads which are containers like Options in Scala. In short, we can say that in Scala the data types that implements map as well as flatMap() like Options, Lists, etc. are called as Monads.
Operations provided by the Monads
The objects are enclosed with Monads as it yields the following two functions:
- unit() : It is like void in Java, it does not returns any data types.
- flatMap() : It is similar to the map() in Scala but it returns a series in place of returning a single component.
Let’s see an example to illustrate it explicitly.
var x = Seq("Geeks", "For", "Geeks")
Let’s apply map() on the sequence given.
// Applying map() var y = x.map(_.toUpperCase) // Output List(GEEKS, FOR, GEEKS)
Now, let’s apply flatMap() on the sequence given.
// Applying flatMap() var z = x.flatMap(_.toUpperCase) // Output List(G, E, E, K, S, F, O, R, G, E, E, K, S)
So, when a flatMap is applied on the Sequence stated above then a List is returned where the inner grouping is removed and a sequence is generated.
Note: Collections that support map as well as flatMap are called as monadic. Now, let’s see some examples of Monads in Scala.
Examples of collection supporting map as well as flatMap.
Example :
// Scala program of Monads // Creating object object GfG { // Main method def main(args : Array[String]) { // Creating list of numbers val list 1 = List( 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 ) val list 2 = List( 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 ) // Applying 'flatMap' and 'map' val z = list 1 flatMap { q => list 2 map { r => q + r } } // Displays output println(z) } } |
List(6, 7, 8, 9, 7, 8, 9, 10, 8, 9, 10, 11, 9, 10, 11, 12)
Let’s see now, how the output is computed.
// Applying map() we get list like below
List(List((1+5), (1+6), (1+7), (1+8)), List((2+5), (2+6), (2+7), (2+8)),
List((3+5), (3+6), (3+7), (3+8)), List((4+5), (4+6), (4+7), (4+8)))
After evaluation we get,
List(List(6, 7, 8, 9), List(7, 8, 9, 10), List(8, 9, 10, 11), List(9, 10, 11, 12))
So, we get a List of Lists and for each operation we have a different list after applying map(), now let’s apply flatMap().
// Applying flatMap() we get a list like below
List(6, 7, 8, 9, 7, 8, 9, 10, 8, 9, 10, 11, 9, 10, 11, 12)
So, when we apply flatMap() the inner grouping is removed.
Example :
// Scala program of Monads // Creating object object GfG { // Main method def main(args : Array[String]) { // Creating list of numbers val x = ( 1 to 3 ).toList val y = ( 1 to 7 by 2 ).toList // Applying 'flatMap'and 'map' val z = x flatMap { s => y map { t => s * t } } // Displays output println(z) } } |
List(1, 3, 5, 7, 2, 6, 10, 14, 3, 9, 15, 21)
Here, List(x) = (1, 2, 3) and List(y) = (1, 3, 5, 7) then let’s see now, how the output is computed.
// Applying map() we get list like below
List(List((1*1), (1*3), (1*5), (1*7)), List((2*1), (2*3), (2*5), (2*7)),
List((3*1), (3*3), (3*5), (3*7)))
And after evaluation we get,
List(List(1, 3,, 5, 7), List(2, 6, 10, 14), List(3, 9, 15, 21))
Now, let’s apply flatMap().
// Applying flatMap() we get a list like below List(1, 3, 5, 7, 2, 6, 10, 14, 3, 9, 15, 21)
Therefore, the internal grouping is removed.