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Modify contents of Linked List – Recursive approach

  • Difficulty Level : Easy
  • Last Updated : 22 Jun, 2021

Given a singly linked list containing n nodes. Modify the value of first half nodes such that 1st node’s new value is equal to the last node’s value minus first node’s current value, 2nd node’s new value is equal to the second last node’s value minus 2nd node’s current value, likewise for first half nodes. If n is odd then the value of the middle node remains unchanged.
Examples: 
 

Input: 10 -> 4 -> 5 -> 3 -> 6 
Output: -4 -> -1 -> 5 -> 3 -> 6
Input: 2 -> 9 -> 8 -> 12 -> 7 -> 10 
Output: 8 -> -2 -> 4 -> 12 -> 7 -> 10 
 

 

Approach: Traverse the link list using recursion for only second half of the list rather than recursing the whole list, thereby reducing the stack frame. Based on the number of nodes in the list, we calculate the starting point for the second half of the list and the list is recursed for the second half. Once the second half is recursed completely, the value of the node present in the stack and the value of the current node is subtracted.
Below is the implementation of the above approach: 
 

C++




// C++ program to modify the contents
// of the linked list with recursion
 
#include <bits/stdc++.h>
using namespace std;
 
// Represents a Node of the linked list
struct Node {
    int data;
    Node* next;
};
 
// Function to create and return a new node
Node* insert(int data)
{
    Node* temp;
    temp = new Node;
    temp->data = data;
    temp->next = NULL;
    return temp;
}
 
// Function which returns the total number of
// node present in the list
int getTotalNodeCount(Node* head)
{
    int totalNodesCount = 0;
     
    while(head != NULL)
    {
        totalNodesCount++;
        head = head->next;
    }
    return totalNodesCount;
}
 
// Function to modify the contents
// of the given linked lists
void modifyContents(Node** first_half ,
                        Node* second_half)
{
    if (second_half == NULL)
    {
        return;
    }
     
    modifyContents(first_half,second_half->next);
     
    (*first_half)->data = second_half->data - (*first_half)->data;
    (*first_half) = (*first_half)->next;
     
    return;
}
 
// Wrapper function which calculates the starting
// point for second half of the list
void modifyContentsWrapper(Node** head)
{
    Node *ptr = NULL; // pointer to second half of list
    Node *temp = NULL;
    int diff = 0;
    int length = 0; // number of nodes in the list
     
    if (*head == NULL)
    {
        return;
    }
    length = getTotalNodeCount(*head);
     
    // If link list has odd number of nodes, then pointer
    // for second half starts from (length of link list + 1).
    // Say for an example, for the list 10->4->5->3->6 pointer
    // should start from 3.
    // If list has even number of nodes, 10->4->5->9->6->8,
    // pointer starts from 9.
    diff = (length%2 == 0? (length/2) :(length/2)+1 );
     
    ptr = *head;
 
    while(diff--)
        ptr = ptr->next;
 
    temp = *head;
 
    modifyContents(&temp,ptr);
 
    return;
}
 
// Function to print the contents of the linked list
void print(Node* nod)
{
    if (nod == NULL) {
        return;
    }
     
    cout << nod->data;
     
    if (nod->next != NULL)
        cout << " -> ";
     
    print(nod->next);
}
 
// Driver code
int main()
{
    Node* head = insert(2);
    head->next = insert(9);
    head->next->next = insert(8);
    head->next->next->next = insert(12);
    head->next->next->next->next = insert(7);
    head->next->next->next->next->next = insert(10);
     
    // Modify the linked list
    modifyContentsWrapper(&head);
 
    // Print the modified linked list
    print(head);
     
    return 0;
}

Java




// Java program to modify the contents
// of the linked list with recursion
class GFG
{
 
// Represents a Node of the linked list
static class Node
{
    int data;
    Node next;
};
 
// Function to create and return a new node
static Node insert(int data)
{
    Node temp;
    temp = new Node();
    temp.data = data;
    temp.next = null;
    return temp;
}
 
// Function which returns the total number
// of node present in the list
static int getTotalNodeCount(Node head)
{
    int totalNodesCount = 0;
     
    while(head != null)
    {
        totalNodesCount++;
        head = head.next;
    }
    return totalNodesCount;
}
 
static Node temp = null;
 
// Function to modify the contents
// of the given linked lists
static void modifyContents(Node second_half)
{
    if (second_half == null)
    {
        return;
    }
     
    modifyContents(second_half.next);
     
    (temp).data = second_half.data - (temp).data;
    (temp) = (temp).next;
     
    return;
}
 
// Wrapper function which calculates the starting
// point for second half of the list
static Node modifyContentsWrapper(Node head)
{
    Node ptr = null; // pointer to second half of list
    temp = null;
    int diff = 0;
    int length = 0; // number of nodes in the list
     
    if (head == null)
    {
        return null;
    }
    length = getTotalNodeCount(head);
     
    // If link list has odd number of nodes,
    // then pointer for second half starts
    // from (length of link list + 1).
    // Say for an example, for the list 10.4.5.3.6 
    // pointer should start from 3.
    // If list has even number of nodes,
    // 10.4.5.9.6.8, pointer starts from 9.
    diff = (length % 2 == 0 ?
               (length / 2) : (length / 2) + 1);
     
    ptr = head;
 
    while(diff-->0)
        ptr = ptr.next;
 
    temp = head;
 
    modifyContents(ptr);
 
    return head;
}
 
// Function to print the contents
// of the linked list
static void print(Node nod)
{
    if (nod == null)
    {
        return;
    }
     
    System.out.print( nod.data);
     
    if (nod.next != null)
        System.out.print( " -> ");
     
    print(nod.next);
}
 
// Driver code
public static void main(String args[])
{
    Node head = insert(2);
    head.next = insert(9);
    head.next.next = insert(8);
    head.next.next.next = insert(12);
    head.next.next.next.next = insert(7);
    head.next.next.next.next.next = insert(10);
     
    // Modify the linked list
    head = modifyContentsWrapper(head);
 
    // Print the modified linked list
    print(head);
}
}
 
// This code is contributed by Arnab Kundu

Python




# Python program to modify the contents
# of the linked list with recursion
 
# Represents a Node of the linked list
class Node:
     
    def __init__(self, data):
        self.data = data
        self.next = None
 
# Function to create and return a new node
def insert( data) :
 
    temp = Node(0)
    temp.data = data
    temp.next = None
    return temp
 
# Function which returns the total number
# of node present in the list
def getTotalNodeCount( head) :
 
    totalNodesCount = 0
     
    while(head != None):
     
        totalNodesCount = totalNodesCount + 1
        head = head.next
     
    return totalNodesCount
 
temp = None
 
# Function to modify the contents
# of the given linked lists
def modifyContents( second_half) :
 
    if (second_half == None):
        return
    global temp
     
    modifyContents(second_half.next)
     
    (temp).data = second_half.data - (temp).data
    (temp) = (temp).next
    return
 
# Wrapper function which calculates the starting
# point for second half of the list
def modifyContentsWrapper(head) :
     
    # pointer to second half of list
    ptr = None
    diff = 0
 
    # number of nodes in the list
    length = 0
    global temp
    temp = None
     
    if (head == None) :
        return None
     
    length = getTotalNodeCount(head)
     
    # If link list has odd number of nodes,
    # then pointer for second half starts
    # from (length of link list + 1).
    # Say for an example, for the list 10.4.5.3.6
    # pointer should start from 3.
    # If list has even number of nodes,
    # 10.4.5.9.6.8, pointer starts from 9.
    if(length % 2 == 0):
        diff = (length / 2)
    else:
        diff = (length / 2) + 1
     
    ptr = head
 
    while(diff > 0):
        diff = diff - 1
        ptr = ptr.next
 
    temp = head
    modifyContents(ptr)
    return head
 
# Function to print the contents
# of the linked list
def print_(nod):
 
    if (nod == None) :
        return
     
    print(nod.data, end = " ")
     
    if (nod.next != None):
        print( " -> ",end = "")
     
    print_(nod.next)
 
# Driver code
head = insert(2)
head.next = insert(9)
head.next.next = insert(8)
head.next.next.next = insert(12)
head.next.next.next.next = insert(7)
head.next.next.next.next.next = insert(10)
     
# Modify the linked list
head = modifyContentsWrapper(head)
 
# Print the modified linked list
print_(head)
 
# This code is contributed by Arnab Kundu

C#




// C# program to modify the contents
// of the linked list with recursion
using System;
     
class GFG
{
 
// Represents a Node of the linked list
public class Node
{
    public int data;
    public Node next;
};
 
// Function to create and return a new node
static Node insert(int data)
{
    Node temp;
    temp = new Node();
    temp.data = data;
    temp.next = null;
    return temp;
}
 
// Function which returns the total number
// of node present in the list
static int getTotalNodeCount(Node head)
{
    int totalNodesCount = 0;
     
    while(head != null)
    {
        totalNodesCount++;
        head = head.next;
    }
    return totalNodesCount;
}
 
static Node temp = null;
 
// Function to modify the contents
// of the given linked lists
static void modifyContents(Node second_half)
{
    if (second_half == null)
    {
        return;
    }
     
    modifyContents(second_half.next);
     
    (temp).data = second_half.data - (temp).data;
    (temp) = (temp).next;
     
    return;
}
 
// Wrapper function which calculates the starting
// point for second half of the list
static Node modifyContentsWrapper(Node head)
{
    // pointer to second half of list
    Node ptr = null;
    temp = null;
    int diff = 0;
     
    // number of nodes in the list
    int length = 0;
     
    if (head == null)
    {
        return null;
    }
    length = getTotalNodeCount(head);
     
    // If link list has odd number of nodes,
    // then pointer for second half starts
    // from (length of link list + 1).
    // Say for an example, for the list 10.4.5.3.6
    // pointer should start from 3.
    // If list has even number of nodes,
    // 10.4.5.9.6.8, pointer starts from 9.
    diff = (length % 2 == 0 ?
           (length / 2) : (length / 2) + 1);
     
    ptr = head;
 
    while(diff-->0)
        ptr = ptr.next;
 
    temp = head;
 
    modifyContents(ptr);
 
    return head;
}
 
// Function to print the contents
// of the linked list
static void print(Node nod)
{
    if (nod == null)
    {
        return;
    }
     
    Console.Write(nod.data);
     
    if (nod.next != null)
        Console.Write(" -> ");
     
    print(nod.next);
}
 
// Driver code
public static void Main(String []args)
{
    Node head = insert(2);
    head.next = insert(9);
    head.next.next = insert(8);
    head.next.next.next = insert(12);
    head.next.next.next.next = insert(7);
    head.next.next.next.next.next = insert(10);
     
    // Modify the linked list
    head = modifyContentsWrapper(head);
 
    // Print the modified linked list
    print(head);
}
}
 
// This code is contributed by PrinciRaj1992

Javascript




<script>
 
      // JavaScript program to modify the contents
      // of the linked list with recursion
      // Represents a Node of the linked list
      class Node {
        constructor() {
          this.data = 0;
          this.next = null;
        }
      }
 
      // Function to create and return a new node
      function insert(data) {
        var temp;
        temp = new Node();
        temp.data = data;
        temp.next = null;
        return temp;
      }
 
      // Function which returns the total number
      // of node present in the list
      function getTotalNodeCount(head) {
        var totalNodesCount = 0;
 
        while (head != null) {
          totalNodesCount++;
          head = head.next;
        }
        return totalNodesCount;
      }
 
      var temp = null;
 
      // Function to modify the contents
      // of the given linked lists
      function modifyContents(second_half) {
        if (second_half == null) {
          return;
        }
 
        modifyContents(second_half.next);
 
        temp.data = second_half.data - temp.data;
        temp = temp.next;
 
        return;
      }
 
      // Wrapper function which calculates the starting
      // point for second half of the list
      function modifyContentsWrapper(head) {
        // pointer to second half of list
        var ptr = null;
        temp = null;
        var diff = 0;
 
        // number of nodes in the list
        var length = 0;
 
        if (head == null) {
          return null;
        }
        length = getTotalNodeCount(head);
 
        // If link list has odd number of nodes,
        // then pointer for second half starts
        // from (length of link list + 1).
        // Say for an example, for the list 10.4.5.3.6
        // pointer should start from 3.
        // If list has even number of nodes,
        // 10.4.5.9.6.8, pointer starts from 9.
        diff =
          length % 2 == 0 ?
          parseInt(length / 2) : parseInt(length / 2) + 1;
 
        ptr = head;
 
        while (diff-- > 0) ptr = ptr.next;
 
        temp = head;
 
        modifyContents(ptr);
 
        return head;
      }
 
      // Function to print the contents
      // of the linked list
      function print(nod) {
        if (nod == null) {
          return;
        }
 
        document.write(nod.data);
 
        if (nod.next != null) document.write(" -> ");
 
        print(nod.next);
      }
 
      // Driver code
      var head = insert(2);
      head.next = insert(9);
      head.next.next = insert(8);
      head.next.next.next = insert(12);
      head.next.next.next.next = insert(7);
      head.next.next.next.next.next = insert(10);
 
      // Modify the linked list
      head = modifyContentsWrapper(head);
 
      // Print the modified linked list
      print(head);
       
</script>
Output: 
8 -> -2 -> 4 -> 12 -> 7 -> 10

 

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