# ML | Mathematical explanation of RMSE and R-squared error

**RMSE: Root Mean Square Error** is the measure of how well a regression line fits the data points. RMSE can also be construed as Standard Deviation in the residuals.

Consider the given data points: (1, 1), (2, 2), (2, 3), (3, 6).

Let us break the above data points into 1-d lists.

**Input:**

x =[1, 2, 2, 3]y =[1, 2, 3, 6]

**Code: **Regression Graph

## Python

`import` `matplotlib.pyplot as plt` `import` `math` `# plotting the points ` `plt.plot(x, y)` `# naming the x axis` `plt.xlabel(` `'x - axis'` `)` `# naming the y axis` `plt.ylabel(` `'y - axis'` `)` `# giving a title to my graph` `plt.title(` `'Regression Graph'` `)` `# function to show the plot` `plt.show()` |

**Output:**

**Code: **Mean Calculation

## Python

`# in the next step we will find the equation of the best fit line` `# we will use Linear algebra's Point slope form to find regression line equation` `# point-slope form is represented by y = mx + c` `# where m is slope means (change in y) / (change in x)` `# c is constant, it represents at which point line will intercept y-axis` `# slope m can be formulated as below:` `'''` ` ` `n` `m =? (xi - Xmean) (yi - Ymean)/?(xi - Xmean)^2` ` ` `i = 1` `'''` `# calculate Xmean and Ymean` `ct ` `=` `len` `(x)` `sum_x ` `=` `0` `sum_y ` `=` `0` `for` `i ` `in` `x:` ` ` `sum_x ` `=` `sum_x ` `+` `i` `x_mean ` `=` `sum_x ` `/` `ct` `print` `(` `'Value of X mean'` `, x_mean)` `for` `i ` `in` `y:` ` ` `sum_y ` `=` `sum_y ` `+` `i` `y_mean ` `=` `sum_y ` `/` `ct` `print` `(` `'value of Y mean'` `, y_mean)` `# we have the values of x mean and y_mean` |

**Output : **

Value of X mean 2.0 value of Y mean 3.0

**Code: **Line Equation

## Python

`# below is the process of finding line equation in mathematical terms` `# slope of our line is 2.5` `# calculate c to find out the equation` `m ` `=` `2.5` `c ` `=` `y_mean ` `-` `m ` `*` `x_mean` `print` `(` `'Intercept'` `, c)` |

**Output: **

Intercept -2.0

**Code: **Mean Squared Error

## Python

`# equation of our Regression line comes out to be as below:` `# y_pred = 2.5x-2.0` `# we call the line y_pred` `# paste regression line graph` `from` `sklearn.metrics ` `import` `mean_squared_error` `# y_pred for our exusting data points is as below` `y ` `=` `[` `1` `, ` `2` `, ` `3` `, ` `6` `]` `y_pred ` `=` `[` `0.5` `, ` `3` `, ` `3` `, ` `5.5` `]` |

**Output:**

## Python

`# root mean square calculated by sklearn package` `mse1 ` `=` `math.sqrt(mean_squared_error(y, y_pred))` `print` `(` `'Root mean square error'` `, mse1)` `# where as the another way to find RMSE` `# is by adding squared attribute as false in mean_squared_error` `mse2 ` `=` `mean_squared_error(y, y_pred, squared` `=` `False` `)` `print` `(` `'Root mean square error'` `, mse2)` |

**Output: **

Root mean square error 0.6123724356957945

**Code : **RMSE Calculation

## Python

`# lets check how the Root mean square is calculated mathematically` `# lets introduce a term called residuals` `# residual are basically the distance of data point from the regression line` `# residuals are denoted by red marked line in below graph` `# root mean square and residuals are calculated as below` `# we have 4 data points` `'''` `r = 1, ri = yi-y_pred` `y_pred is mx + c` `ri = yi-(mx + c)` `e.g. x = 1, we have value of y as 1` `we want to evaluate what exactly our model has predicted for x = 1` `(1, 1)r1 = 1, x = 2` `'''` `# y_pred1 = 1-(2.5 * 1-2.0)= 0.5` `r1 ` `=` `1` `-` `(` `2.5` `*` `1` `-` `2.0` `)` `#(2, 2) r2 = 2, x = 2` `# y_pred2 = 2-(2.5 * 2-2.0)=-1` `r2 ` `=` `2` `-` `(` `2.5` `*` `2` `-` `2.0` `)` `#(2, 3) r3 = 3, x = 2` `# y_pred3 = 3-(2.5 * 2-2.0)= 0` `r3 ` `=` `3` `-` `(` `2.5` `*` `2` `-` `2.0` `)` `#(3, 6) r4 = 4, x = 3` `# y_pred4 = 6-(2.5 * 3-2.0)=.5` `r4 ` `=` `6` `-` `(` `2.5` `*` `3` `-` `2.0` `)` `# from above calculation we have values of residuals` `residuals ` `=` `[` `0.5` `, ` `-` `1` `, ` `0` `, .` `5` `]` `# now calculate root mean square error` `# N = 4 data points` `N ` `=` `4` `rmse ` `=` `math.sqrt((r1` `*` `*` `2` `+` `r2` `*` `*` `2` `+` `r3` `*` `*` `2` `+` `r4` `*` `*` `2` `)` `/` `N)` `print` `(` `'Root Mean square error using maths'` `, rmse)` `# root mean square actually calculated using mathematics` `# both of RMSE calculated are same` |

**Output:**

**Output: **

Root Mean square error using maths 0.6123724356957945

R-squared Error or Coefficient of Determination

R2 error answers the below question.

How much y varies with variation in x.Basically the % variation of y on variation with x

**Code: **R-Squared Error** **

## Python

`# SEline =(y1-(mx1 + b)**2 + y2-(mx2 + b)**2...+yn-(mxn + b)**2)` `# SE_line =(1-(2.5 * 1+(-2))**2 + (2-(2.5 * 2+(-2))**2) +(3-(2.5*(2)+(-2))**2) + (6-(2.5*(3)+(-2))**2))` `val1 ` `=` `(` `1` `-` `(` `2.5` `*` `1` `+` `(` `-` `2` `)))` `*` `*` `2` `val2 ` `=` `(` `2` `-` `(` `2.5` `*` `2` `+` `(` `-` `2` `)))` `*` `*` `2` `val3 ` `=` `(` `3` `-` `(` `2.5` `*` `2` `+` `(` `-` `2` `)))` `*` `*` `2` `val4 ` `=` `(` `6` `-` `(` `2.5` `*` `3` `+` `(` `-` `2` `)))` `*` `*` `2` `SE_line ` `=` `val1 ` `+` `val2 ` `+` `val3 ` `+` `val4` `print` `(` `'val'` `, val1, val2, val3, val4)` `# next to calculate total variation in Y from mean value` `# variation in y is calculated as` `# y_var =(y1-ymean)**2+(y2-ymean)**2...+(yn-ymean)2` `y ` `=` `[` `1` `, ` `2` `, ` `3` `, ` `6` `]` `y_var ` `=` `(` `1` `-` `3` `)` `*` `*` `2` `+` `(` `2` `-` `3` `)` `*` `*` `2` `+` `(` `3` `-` `3` `)` `*` `*` `2` `+` `(` `6` `-` `3` `)` `*` `*` `2` `SE_mean ` `=` `y_var` `# by calculating y_var we are calculating the distance` `# between y data points and mean value of y` `# so answer to our question, % of the total variation` `# of wrt x is denoted as below:` `r_squared ` `=` `1` `-` `(SE_line ` `/` `SE_mean)` `# [SE_line / SE_mean] -->tells us the what % of variation` `# in y is not described by regression line` `# 1-(SE_line / SE_mean) --> gives us the exact value of` `# how much % y varies with variation in x` `print` `(` `'Rsquared error'` `, r_squared)` |

**Output**

('val', 0.25, 1.0, 0.0, 0.25) ('Rsquared error', 0.8928571428571429)

**Code: **R-Squared Error with sklearn

## Python

`from` `sklearn.metrics ` `import` `r2_score` `# r2 error calculated by sklearn is similar` `# to ours mathematically calculated r2 error` `# calculate r2 error using sklearn` `r2_score(y, y_pred)` |

**Output: **

0.8928571428571429