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Minimum steps to convert one binary string to other only using negation

  • Difficulty Level : Basic
  • Last Updated : 10 May, 2021
Geek Week

Given two binary strings A and B, the task is to convert A to B by choosing any sub-string of A and negating it (replace each 0 with 1 and each 1 with 0). Print the minimum number of operations required.
Examples: 
 

Input: A = “101010”, B = “110011” 
Output:
Choose the sub-string of length 2 from index 1 to 2 and negate it then A becomes “110010” and then take the last character and negate it. 
The final string becomes “110011”
Input: A = “1010101”, B = “0011100” 
Output:
 

 

Approach: Create a blank array and mark the indices which need to be negated. Then the answer will be number of blocks of consecutive 1’s in the array as a single block can be negated in a single operation. 
For example, A = “101010” and B = “110011” 
The newly created array will be {0, 1, 1, 0, 0, 1} so the answer will be 2, 
A after first operation will be “110010” 
After second operation “110011”
Below is the implementation of the above approach:
 

C++




// C++ implementation of the above approach
#include <iostream>
using namespace std;
 
// Function to find the minimum steps
// to convert string a to string b
void convert(int n, string a, string b)
{
    // array to mark the positions
    // needed to be negated
    int l[n];
    int i;
 
    for (i = 0; i < n; i++)
        l[i] = 0;
 
    for (i = 0; i < n; i++) {
 
        // If two character are not same
        // then they need to be negated
        if (a[i] != b[i])
            l[i] = 1;
    }
 
    // To count the blocks of 1
    int cc = 0;
 
    // To count the number of 1's in
    // each block of 1's
    int vl = 0;
    for (i = 0; i < n; i++) {
        if (l[i] == 0) {
            if (vl != 0)
                cc += 1;
 
            vl = 0;
        }
        else
            vl += 1;
    }
 
    // For the last block of 1's
    if (vl != 0)
        cc += 1;
 
    cout << cc << endl;
}
 
// Driver code
int main()
{
    string a = "101010";
    string b = "110011";
 
    int n = a.length();
    convert(n, a, b);
 
    return 0;
}
 
// This code is contributed by ANKITRAI1

Java




// Java implementation of the above approach
import java.util.*;
 
class solution {
 
    // Function to find the minimum steps
    // to convert string a to string b
    static void convert(int n, String a, String b)
    {
        // array to mark the positions
        // needed to be negated
        int[] l = new int[n];
        int i;
 
        for (i = 0; i < n; i++)
            l[i] = 0;
 
        for (i = 0; i < n; i++) {
 
            // If two character are not same
            // then they need to be negated
            if (a.charAt(i) != b.charAt(i))
                l[i] = 1;
        }
 
        // To count the blocks of 1
        int cc = 0;
 
        // To count the number of 1's in
        // each block of 1's
        int vl = 0;
        for (i = 0; i < n; i++) {
            if (l[i] == 0) {
                if (vl != 0)
                    cc += 1;
 
                vl = 0;
            }
            else
                vl += 1;
        }
 
        // For the last block of 1's
        if (vl != 0)
            cc += 1;
 
        System.out.println(cc);
    }
 
    // Driver code
    public static void main(String args[])
    {
        String a = "101010";
        String b = "110011";
 
        int n = a.length();
        convert(n, a, b);
    }
}

Python3




# Python3 implementation of the above approach
 
# Function to find the minimum steps
# to convert string a to string b
def convert(n, a, b):
 
    # List to mark the positions needed to
    # be negated
    l = [0] * n
    for i in range(n):
 
        # If two character are not same
        # then they need to be negated
        if(a[i] != b[i]):
            l[i] = 1
 
    # To count the blocks of 1
    cc = 0
 
    # To count the number of 1's in each
    # block of 1's
    vl = 0
    for i in range(n):
        if (l[i] == 0):
            if(vl != 0):
                cc += 1
            vl = 0
        else:
            vl += 1
 
    # For the last block of 1's
    if(vl != 0):
        cc += 1
 
    print(cc)
 
# Driver code
a = "101010"
b = "110011"
n = len(a)
convert(n, a, b)

C#




// C# implementation of the above approach
using System;
 
class GFG {
 
    // Function to find the minimum steps
    // to convert string a to string b
    static void convert(int n, String a, String b)
    {
        // array to mark the positions
        // needed to be negated
        int[] l = new int[n];
        int i;
 
        for (i = 0; i < n; i++)
            l[i] = 0;
 
        for (i = 0; i < n; i++) {
 
            // If two character are not same
            // then they need to be negated
            if (a[i] != b[i])
                l[i] = 1;
        }
 
        // To count the blocks of 1
        int cc = 0;
 
        // To count the number of 1's in
        // each block of 1's
        int vl = 0;
        for (i = 0; i < n; i++) {
            if (l[i] == 0) {
                if (vl != 0)
                    cc += 1;
 
                vl = 0;
            }
            else
                vl += 1;
        }
 
        // For the last block of 1's
        if (vl != 0)
            cc += 1;
        Console.WriteLine(cc);
    }
 
    // Driver code
    static public void Main()
    {
 
        String a = "101010";
        String b = "110011";
 
        int n = a.Length;
        convert(n, a, b);
    }
}
 
// This code is contributed by jit_t.

PHP




<?php
// PHP implementation of the above approach
 
// Function to find the minimum steps
// to convert string a to string b
function convert($n, $a, $b)
{
    // array to mark the positions
    // needed to be negated
    $l = array_fill(0, $n, NULL);
     
    for ($i = 0; $i < $n; $i++)
        $l[$i] = 0 ;
         
    for($i = 0; $i < $n; $i++)
    {
 
        // If two character are not same
        // then they need to be negated
        if($a[$i] != $b[$i])
            $l[$i] = 1 ;
    }
     
    // To count the blocks of 1
    $cc = 0;
 
    // To count the number of 1's in
    // each block of 1's
    $vl = 0 ;
    for($i = 0; $i < $n ; $i++)
    {
        if ($l[$i] == 0)
        {
            if($vl != 0)
                $cc += 1 ;
                 
            $vl = 0 ;
        }
        else
            $vl += 1 ;
    }
     
    // For the last block of 1's
    if($vl != 0)
        $cc += 1 ;
 
    echo $cc . "\n";
}
 
// Driver code
$a = "101010";
$b = "110011";
 
$n = strlen($a);
convert($n, $a, $b) ;
 
// This code is contributed
// by ChitraNayal
?>

Javascript




<script>
 
    // Javascript implementation of
    // the above approach
     
    // Function to find the minimum steps
    // to convert string a to string b
    function convert(n, a, b)
    {
        // array to mark the positions
        // needed to be negated
        let l = new Array(n);
        let i;
   
        for (i = 0; i < n; i++)
            l[i] = 0;
   
        for (i = 0; i < n; i++) {
   
            // If two character are not same
            // then they need to be negated
            if (a[i] != b[i])
                l[i] = 1;
        }
   
        // To count the blocks of 1
        let cc = 0;
   
        // To count the number of 1's in
        // each block of 1's
        let vl = 0;
        for (i = 0; i < n; i++) {
            if (l[i] == 0) {
                if (vl != 0)
                    cc += 1;
   
                vl = 0;
            }
            else
                vl += 1;
        }
   
        // For the last block of 1's
        if (vl != 0)
            cc += 1;
        document.write(cc + "</br>");
    }
     
    let a = "101010";
    let b = "110011";
 
    let n = a.length;
    convert(n, a, b);
     
</script>
Output: 
2

 

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