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Minimum operations to make counts of remainders same in an array
  • Last Updated : 06 Nov, 2020

Given an array arr[] of N integers and an integer M where N % M = 0. The task is to find the minimum number of operations that need to be performed on the array to make c0 = c1 = ….. = cM – 1 = N / M where cr is the number of elements in the given array having remainder r when divided by M. In each operation, any array element can be incremented by 1.

Examples: 

Input: arr[] = {1, 2, 3}, M = 3 
Output:
After performing the modulus operation on the given array, the array becomes {0, 1, 2} 
And count of c0 = c1 = c2 = n / m = 1. 
So, no any additional operations are required.

Input: arr[] = {3, 2, 0, 6, 10, 12}, M = 3 
Output:
After performing the modulus operation on the given array, the array becomes {0, 2, 0, 0, 1, 0} 
And count of c0 = 4, c1 = 1 and c2 = 1. To make c0 = c1 = c2 = n / m = 2. 
Add 1 to 6 and 2 to 12 then the array becomes {3, 2, 0, 7, 10, 14} and c0 = c1 = c2 = n / m = 2. 

Approach: For each i from 0 to m – 1, find all the elements of the array that are congruent to i modulo m and store their indices in a list. Also, create a vector called extra, and let k = n / m.



We have to cycle from 0 to m – 1 twice. For each i from 0 to m – 1, if there are more elements than k in the list, remove the extra elements from this list and add them to extra. If instead there are lesser elements than k then remove the last few elements from the vector extra. For every removed index idx, increase arr[idx] by (i – arr[idx]) % m.

It is obvious that after the first m iterations, every list will have size at most k and after m more iterations all lists will have the same sizes i.e. k.

Below is the implementation of the above approach: 

C++




// C++ implementation of the approach
#include <bits/stdc++.h>
using namespace std;
 
// Function to return the minimum
// number of operations required
int minOperations(int n, int a[], int m)
{
    int k = n / m;
 
    // To store modulos values
    vector<vector<int> > val(m);
    for (int i = 0; i < n; ++i) {
        val[a[i] % m].push_back(i);
    }
 
    long long ans = 0;
    vector<pair<int, int> > extra;
 
    for (int i = 0; i < 2 * m; ++i) {
        int cur = i % m;
 
        // If it's size greater than k
        // it needed to be decreased
        while (int(val[cur].size()) > k) {
            int elem = val[cur].back();
            val[cur].pop_back();
            extra.push_back(make_pair(elem, i));
        }
 
        // If it's size is less than k
        // it needed to be increased
        while (int(val[cur].size()) < k && !extra.empty()) {
            int elem = extra.back().first;
            int mmod = extra.back().second;
            extra.pop_back();
            val[cur].push_back(elem);
            ans += i - mmod;
        }
    }
 
    return ans;
}
 
// Driver code
int main()
{
    int m = 3;
 
    int a[] = { 3, 2, 0, 6, 10, 12 };
    int n = sizeof(a) / sizeof(a[0]);
    cout << minOperations(n, a, m);
 
    return 0;
}

Java




// Java implementation of the approach
import java.util.*;
 
class GFG{
 
static class pair
{
    int first, second;
     
    public pair(int first, int second) 
    {
        this.first = first;
        this.second = second;
    }   
}
 
// Function to return the minimum
// number of operations required
static int minOperations(int n, int a[], int m)
{
    int k = n / m;
 
    // To store modulos values
    @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
    Vector<Integer> []val = new Vector[m];
    for(int i = 0; i < val.length; i++)
        val[i] = new Vector<Integer>();
         
    for(int i = 0; i < n; ++i)
    {
        val[a[i] % m].add(i);
    }
 
    long ans = 0;
    Vector<pair> extra = new Vector<>();
 
    for(int i = 0; i < 2 * m; ++i)
    {
        int cur = i % m;
 
        // If it's size greater than k
        // it needed to be decreased
        while ((val[cur].size()) > k)
        {
            int elem = val[cur].lastElement();
            val[cur].removeElementAt(val[cur].size() - 1);
            extra.add(new pair(elem, i));
        }
 
        // If it's size is less than k
        // it needed to be increased
        while (val[cur].size() < k && !extra.isEmpty())
        {
            int elem = extra.get(extra.size() - 1).first;
            int mmod = extra.get(extra.size() - 1).second;
             
            extra.remove(extra.size() - 1);
            val[cur].add(elem);
            ans += i - mmod;
        }
    }
    return (int)ans;
}
 
// Driver code
public static void main(String[] args)
{
    int m = 3;
    int a[] = { 3, 2, 0, 6, 10, 12 };
    int n = a.length;
     
    System.out.print(minOperations(n, a, m));
}
}
 
// This code is contributed by Princi Singh

Python3




# Python3 implementation of the approach
 
# Function to return the minimum
# number of operations required
def minOperations(n, a, m):
 
    k = n // m
 
    # To store modulos values
    val = [[] for i in range(m)]
    for i in range(0, n):
        val[a[i] % m].append(i)
     
    ans = 0
    extra = []
 
    for i in range(0, 2 * m):
        cur = i % m
 
        # If it's size greater than k
        # it needed to be decreased
        while len(val[cur]) > k:
            elem = val[cur].pop()
            extra.append((elem, i))
 
        # If it's size is less than k
        # it needed to be increased
        while (len(val[cur]) < k and
               len(extra) > 0):
            elem = extra[-1][0]
            mmod = extra[-1][1]
            extra.pop()
            val[cur].append(elem)
            ans += i - mmod
 
    return ans
 
# Driver code
if __name__ == "__main__":
 
    m = 3
 
    a = [3, 2, 0, 6, 10, 12]
    n = len(a)
    print(minOperations(n, a, m))
     
# This code is contributed by Rituraj Jain

C#




// C# implementation of the
// above approach
using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
class GFG{
 
public class pair
{
  public int first,
             second;
 
  public pair(int first,
              int second) 
  {
    this.first = first;
    this.second = second;
  }   
}
 
// Function to return the minimum
// number of operations required
static int minOperations(int n,
                         int []a,
                         int m)
{
  int k = n / m;
 
  // To store modulos values
  List<int> []val =
       new List<int>[m];
   
  for(int i = 0;
          i < val.Length; i++)
    val[i] = new List<int>();
 
  for(int i = 0; i < n; ++i)
  {
    val[a[i] % m].Add(i);
  }
 
  long ans = 0;
  List<pair> extra =
       new List<pair>();
 
  for(int i = 0;
          i < 2 * m; ++i)
  {
    int cur = i % m;
 
    // If it's size greater than k
    // it needed to be decreased
    while ((val[cur].Count) > k)
    {
      int elem = val[cur][val[cur].Count - 1];
      val[cur].RemoveAt(val[cur].Count - 1);
      extra.Add(new pair(elem, i));
    }
 
    // If it's size is less than k
    // it needed to be increased
    while (val[cur].Count < k &&
           extra.Count != 0)
    {
      int elem = extra[extra.Count - 1].first;
      int mmod = extra[extra.Count - 1].second;
      extra.RemoveAt(extra.Count - 1);
      val[cur].Add(elem);
      ans += i - mmod;
    }
  }
  return (int)ans;
}
 
// Driver code
public static void Main(String[] args)
{
  int m = 3;
  int []a = {3, 2, 0, 6, 10, 12};
  int n = a.Length;
  Console.Write(minOperations(n, a, m));
}
}
 
// This code is contributed by Princi Singh
Output: 
3






 

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