Minimax Algorithm in Game Theory | Set 5 (Zobrist Hashing)
Zobrist Hashing is a hashing function that is widely used in 2 player board games. It is the most common hashing function used in transposition table. Transposition tables basically store the evaluated values of previous board states, so that if they are encountered again we simply retrieve the stored value from the transposition table. We will be covering transposition tables in a later article. In this article we shall take the example of chess board and implement a hashing function for that.
// A matrix with random numbers initialized once Table[#ofBoardCells][#ofPieces] // Returns Zobrist hash function for current conf- // iguration of board. function findhash(board): hash = 0 for each cell on the board : if cell is not empty : piece = board[cell] hash ^= table[cell][piece] return hash
The idea behind Zobrist Hashing is that for a given board state, if there is a piece on a given cell, we use the random number of that piece from the corresponding cell in the table.
If more bits are there in the random number the lesser chance of a hash collision. Therefore 64 bit numbers are commonly used as the standard and it is highly unlikely for a hash collision to occur with such large numbers. The table has to be initialized only once during the programs execution.
Also the reason why Zobrist Hashing is widely used in board games is because when a player makes a move, it is not necessary to recalculate the hash value from scratch. Due to the nature of XOR operation we can simply use few XOR operations to recalculate the hash value.
We shall try to find a hash value for the given board configuration.
The hash value is : 14226429382419125366 The new hash value is : 15124945578233295113 The old hash value is : 14226429382419125366
This article is contributed by Akshay L Aradhya. If you like GeeksforGeeks and would like to contribute, you can also write an article using contribute.geeksforgeeks.org or mail your article to email@example.com. See your article appearing on the GeeksforGeeks main page and help other Geeks.
Please write comments if you find anything incorrect, or you want to share more information about the topic discussed above.
Attention reader! Don’t stop learning now. Get hold of all the important DSA concepts with the DSA Self Paced Course at a student-friendly price and become industry ready. To complete your preparation from learning a language to DS Algo and many more, please refer Complete Interview Preparation Course.